Are Lovebirds For You?

Lovebirds are small, active, happy birds. They can also be loud and nippy. A single Lovebird can be a great pet, while a pair of Lovebirds will often bond to each other and not care to spend time with you. A Lovebird will not sing, and few Lovebirds will learn human speech. But they are a lot of personality packed into a tiny and relatively inexpensive bird. If you are looking for a small buddy, who will be thrilled to play with you and snuggle with you, a Lovebird may be exactly right for you. But be p repared for some shrill chirps, a few nips on the finger, and very inquisitive shadow.


Hand-Fed Or Parent-Raised?

A young hand-fed Lovebird is the best bet for an inexperienced bird-owner. Parent-raised lovebirds are tamable, but it requires a lot of love, patience, and tolerance to bites.



Lovebirds are fairly cheap in comparison to most of their parrot cousins. Hand-raised Lovebirds can range in price from $40 to $150 for the more common species and mutations. Parent-fed Lovebirds are generally less expensive. The rarer species and mutati ons will cost quite a bit more.


Caring For Your Lovebird


Lovebirds require more than just seed. A pelleted diet, supplemented with fresh fruits, vegetables, boiled eggs, cereals, pasta, rice, and lentils will produce a heathly, beautifully feathered Lovebird. Many Lovebird breeders also feed a seed-based diet, with most of the other foods as supplements. A seed-based diet must consist of a mixture of seeds and grains. Canary seed, millet, rice, oats, safflower and a small amount of sunflower are the most popular parts of these seed mixes. Corn is often a big hit with Lovebirds, as is sprouted seed. Lovebirds also tend to drink a lot of water, and must have fresh water available at all times.



The minimum cage size for a single pair of Lovebirds is 30 X 30 X 18. As with all birds, the bigger the cage the better. Provide your Lovebirds with the biggest cage that you can afford, and have space for. Bar spacing is also important, and should be no more than 3/4 inch.



Lovebirds do have the ability to talk, but very few do. They also do not sing. Lovebirds have a variety of peeps, cheeps, chirps, and squeaks. An attentive Lovebird-parent will learn what many of these sounds mean to their birds. Lovebirds can have very shrill voices however, and should not be expected to be quiet at all times.



Lovebirds can be trained to do little tricks. However, it is much more likely that they will train you. You will quickly learn their likes and dislikes, what they want and when they want it, and you will love every minute of it.



Lovebird Species And Mutations


There are 9 different Lovebird Species, which are broken up into three groups: the White Eye Ring group, the Intermediate group, and the Sexually Dimorphic group.


Breeding Lovebirds


Breeding Lovebirds require a healthy diet consisting of a lot of greens as well as their regular diet. A bird on a seed-only diet will not be in top condition for breeding. The area that the breeding birds live in should be about 60F with the humidity at 40-50%. A nestbox is also required, and the standard parakeet size boxes sold in stores are fine for Lovebirds as well. Provide the Lovebirds with newspaper, palm fronds, branches of willow and fruit trees, or pine shaving for nesting materials. Usually a combination of these are best. Determined Lovebirds can build their nest in 4 or 5 days. The first egg is laid about 10 days after mating, and another egg is laid every other day until the clutch is 4 to 6 eggs. After 6 or 7 days, you should be able t o tell if the eggs are fertile by "candling" them. Hold the eggs gently near a bright light. If you can clearly see a dark spot surrounded by blood vessels, the egg is fertile. The incubation period for Lovebirds is 21 to 26 days.

Once the chicks hatch , make sure to provide a lot of good foods for the parents. They will be feeding the chicks, and should have corn, egg, greens, fruit and other foods available at all times. Fresh water is very important also, so be sure to replace their water often. Be sure to check that all the babies are being fed. Occasionally, you may have to handfeed a baby immediately. If the parents are feeding the babies properly, should continue to check them periodically anyway. If you plan on hand-feeding the babies, the bes t time to pull them is from 10 - 14 days old. If you don't pull them, the parents will kick the babies out of the nest at 5 to 6 weeks, and they should be eating on their own by then. The male Lovebird helps teach his chicks to eat regular foods.

Baby Lovebirds that are being hand-fed should be placed in a "hospital box". A small aquarium works well. Cover the bottom with soft towels, and place a heating pad under half the aquarium. Be sure to keep the birds warm. Hand-feeding can be done with a syrin ge or a spoon, although a syringe is the most popular choice. Hand-feeding formulas must be kept at the proper temperature, or the babies will either not eat, or develop crop problems. I won't go into too much detail here about hand-feeding, because it r equires a great deal of care and knowledge.





Breeding & Caring For Rabbit


Suhu normal kelinci 39,3 derajat Celcius. Kelinci lebih merasa nyaman hidup di suhu 15-22 derajat Celcius, dan tidak nyaman dengan panas matahari. Kecepatan pernafasan dan denyut nadi tergolong paling tinggi dibandingkan hewan lain. Pada cuaca panas, kelinci sering mengalami rasa tidak nyaman. Dalam taraf tertentu kelinci agak membenci panas udara dan panas matahari. Salah satu karakter unik kelinci adalah hidup bergerombol. Sejak masa kelahirannya kelinci lahir dalam satu ruang, di kotak kandang maupun di lubang tanah. Kesukaan mereka bergerombol mereka nikmati sampai saat mereka bisa berjalan dan usia remaja 3 bulan. Pada masa menyusui hingga umur 35 hari, mereka menyusu secara beramai-ramai, tidur menyatu dalam 'selimut' bulu induknya dan bermain bersama.

Induk yang menyusui 6-12 ekor anak sekalipun dengan puting susu berjumlah enam, sang induk tetap bisa membagi rata pasokan air susu. Induk kelinci punya kesadaran yang khas bahwa dari jumlah anaknya yang banyak tersebut dipastikan sebagian anaknya ada yang kalah dalam berebut air susu. Karena itu saat menyusui, sang induk pasti bergeser-geser membagi jatah air susunya secara merata. Seringkali sang induk tahu jika ada anak yang sakit dipastikan didekati dan diberikan kasih sayang dengan cara menjilati bagian mata, leher, dan telinga. Terlebih pada saat sekarat, solidaritas kelinci sangat terlihat dimana mereka yang sehat akan berduka dan memberikan rasa kasih sayangnya dengan menjilati bagian kepala kelinci yang sedang sakit.

Badan kelinci rata-rata panjangnya 35-55 cm, dan memiliki berat yang bervariasi 1,8-3,3 kg, bahkan bisa mencapai 7 kg. Untuk jenis Flemish Giant ada yang mencapai 22 kg.

Kelinci memiliki tulang yang tergolong lemah dibandingkan dengan kucing atau anjing. Berat tulangnya hanya 8% dari keseluruhan berat badannya. Maka tidak boleh sembarang mengangkat, jangan sampai terjatuh dari ketinggian karena tulang mudah patah. Secara umum matanya sangat sensitif, 8 kali lebih sensitif dibandingkan dengan mata manusia.

Kelinci adalah mahluk monogastric (satu lambung) sebagai hewan herbivora fermentasi. Kelinci mengandalkan fermentasi alamiah dengan bantuan bakteri dalam usus untuk memproduksi bahan gizi yang dibutuhkan kelinci. Telinga kelinci juga memiliki kepekaan yang sangat tinggi. Telinganya meliputi sirkulasi darah panas dan sistem pengumpulan suara. Sedangkan pendengarannya terdiri dari sistem peredaran darah yang kompleks, maka telinga kelinci tidak boleh dipegang keras, apalagi mengangkatnya.

Orang bilang kelinci tidur pada siang hari, sepanjang malam melakukan aktivitas, baik makan maupun bermain. Namun kalau kita lihat secara empiris, sebenarnya pada siang hari kelinci juga tidak tidur seterusnya, ini bisa dilihat dengan seringnya mata kelinci melek.


Kelinci Angora


Rabbits are very sensitive and fragile animals that easily get infected by a number of ailments. Therefore, rabbits require proper care and attention of the person who own it. It is significant for one to know how to care for rabbits if he owns it. One can care his rabbit in the several ways that are mentioned below.
Tips for rabbit care: 
1. Proper cage for rabbits: Treat your rabbit like a family member. Make sure that you provide them a well spacious cage to reside. The room of rabbit should be big enough to allow him to stretch out, stand up straight and move comfortably. The spacious the cage, the happier your rabbit will be. Rabbits are playful animal, so they need an enough big cage where they can spend their time and play. However, it doesn’t mean that it should be kept in a cage for long hours. Allow him several hours outside the cage each day, preferably in the morning or evening.
2. Diet for a rabbit: Make sure that you provide healthy diet and fresh water to your rabbit. A proper diet will help to keep your rabbit healthy. Adult rabbit requires unlimited timothy hay, a limited amount of high-fiber rabbit pellets, and fresh vegetables daily in his diet. You must decrease the consumption of pellets to avoid weight gain and nutritional and digestive problems. Try to offer them a variety of vegetables such as carrots, kale, collard greens, parsley, cilantro, broccoli and dark leaf lettuces to eat. Avoid providing food that can cause digestion problems such as iceberg, lettuce, cabbage, Brussels sprouts or snacks high in sugar such as cookies, crackers, or candy. If you are thinking of making any changes in your rabbit’s diet then make it slowly so that it doesn’t affect its digestive system.
3. How to handle your rabbit: The bones of rabbit are very delicate. Therefore, it is essential for one to lift a rabbit carefully. To lift a rabbit, place your one hand below the front of the rabbit and the other hand below his back side. One must lift it carefully with both hands and then bring it beside your body. Avoid lifting your rabbit by the stomach and ear. Make sure that you never let a rabbit’s body hang free.
4. Rabbit health: Rabbits are at a risk several ailments. So one must take his rabbit to veterinarian regularly in order to keep it healthy. Healthy rabbit add more charm to your home. Therefore, it is essential to keep your rabbit healthy. One must take necessary steps to uphold the health of his rabbit.
5. Love your rabbit: It is one of the necessary requirements for rabbits as they are social creatures. Try to treat them like a family member. Being an owner one must try to interact with them regularly. Daily interaction will help to keep your rabbit happy.

The above mentioned tips will definitely help you to take good care of a rabbit. Make sure that you provide a clean and satisfactory environment to your rabbit. Keep the rabbit away from a child below the age of 8 years as they are immature to handle it. Parent should guide their child in handling it properly.



Kurang lebih ada 86 jenis ras yang terdiri dari 17 jenis ras asli dan 69 jenis hasil kawin silang. Di sini hanya akan diuraikan 10 ras yang sudah dikenal luas masyarakat Indonesia.


1. Flemish Giant

Tubuhnya besar. Diakui ada 7 variasi: hitam, biru, coklat, abu-abu muda, warna pasir, warna baja, dan putih. Berat badan induk pejantan mencapai 5,6 kg. Sedangkan betina 6,7 kg. Jenis ini kadang dapat mencapai berat antara 8-29 kg.


Diperkirakan berasal dari Argentina


Flemish Giant dan juga jenis Rex mudah mendengarkan nama panggilan. Dalam beberapa bulan kita biasakan menyebut namanya, dia akan mengerti dan mengingatnya. Dan mereka juga mengerti bagaimana cara membuang kotoran yang tepat.

Usia kawin Flemish Giant tergolong terlambat yaitu 8-10 bulan, dimana produktivitas beranaknya 6-8 ekor anak, terkadang mampu melahirkan 10 ekor anak.


2. Angora

Jenis ini diminati banyak orang karena bulu tebal dan hidungnya yang pesek sehingga terkesan lucu saat nyengir. Ada 4 kategori jenis kelinci Angora: Angora Inggris, Angora Perancis, Angora Satin, Angora Giant.

Angora Inggris dapat tumbuh sampai 3,5 kg. Angora Perancis berbobot 2,8-4,5 kg. Angora Giant bisa mencapai di atas 4 kg.


Syarat memelihara kelinci Angora adalah kewajiban menyisir dan memotong bulunya yang tebal


3. Holland Lop & Fuzzy Lop

Holland Lop berbulu pendek dan lebih tipis dibandingkan Fuzzy Lop yang lebih lebat dan panjang.


Telinga panjang Holland Lop menjuntai antara 10-13 cm, hidungnya pesek


Tampak badung dan lucu, karakternya tidak liar, dan saat tidur pesonanya sangat menggemaskan. Berat badan rata-rata 2 kg. Warna bulunya beragam: hitam, abu-abu, putih, coklat, kombinasi 2-3 warna, terkadang kuning kecoklatan.


Fuzzy Lop berbulu lebih lebat dan panjang dibandingkan dengan Holland Lop


4. Rex

Sering disebut kelinci Bulu Karpet karna bulunya halus dan merata. Badannya yang sehat seperti kapsul, bulat memanjang. Bulunya pendek lembut merata, dengan warna: putih, hitam, oranye, hitam jelaga seperti rusa, biru, coklat, seperti bulu musang yang pudar, seperti tikus chinchilla (hitam di bagian dasar, agak terang dan totol gelap), dst. Bobotnya 2-3 kg. Beranak 6-8 ekor, terkadang 12 ekor anak.


Rex betina lebih jinak dan kurang suka bermain-main dengan kotoran


Kalaupun menggali lubang, betina tetap menjaga kebersihan dari tanah. Sedangkan Rex jantan lebih suka bermain tanah sampai seluruh badannya kotor. Rex betina sangat mudah dipelihara di dalam rumah. Kencing dan beraknya mudah diatur. Saat ada orang tertidur, Rex senang mendekat dan menciumi muka orang yang tertidur.

Kelinci Rex senang berdekatan dengan manusia, diberi makan dengan cara menyuapi langsung ke mulutnya. Rex juga senang dielus-elus sampai tertidur. Jika sudah terbiasa dengan manusia, dia akan merasa nyaman berada di pangkuan untuk jangka waktu lama. Kalau kita taruh di ruang nonton teve, Rex mau tidur atau berkeliling di sekitar kita. Saat mereka tertidur, kemudian ada banyak suara orang, dia mudah mendekat dan bermain bersama kita. Seringkali Rex memamerkan kemahirannya berdiri tegak selama bermenit-menit. Kalau mereka ingin keluar rumah, dia akan berdiri di depan kita dan kepalanya mendongak meminta dibukakan. Saat dia marah, biasanya kencing di sembarang tempat sebagai bentuk protes.


5. Dutch

Berasal dari Belanda. Tergolong kelinci kecil namun bukan 'dwarf'. Berbobot 1,7-2,2 kg, terkadang bisa 3 kg. Kombinasi bulunya unik yang terbelah di tengah. Bagian belakang warna gelap: hitam, coklat, coklat kemerah-merahan, abu-abu agak hitam; sedangkan bagian perut ke depan berwarna putih. Bagian kepala warnanya sama dengan warna bulu badan bagian belakang.


Pola makan kelinci Dutch tidak rewel


Cara berlarinya unik, kepalanya naik turun seiring pola lompatan kaki. Karakter jinaknya terkadang hilang saat ia stress atau kurang minum.

Dutch betina seringkali berekspresi memelas (bahkan teriak keras merintih) kalau sedang menderita karena enggan dikawinkan atau kekurangan pakan; lebih suka dikawinkan dengan pejantan yang lebih tua umurnya.


6. Himalayan

Kepalanya panjang dan lancip dengan bulu putih dan mata merah. Pada bagian telinga, wajah, dan kaki memiliki warna tertentu yang khas. Warna bulunya: hitam, coklat, dan lilac; atau hitam, biru, coklat, dan lilac. Produktivitasnya rendah, beranak 2-6 ekor anak. Harus telaten mengawinkan berulang-ulang karna sering gagal, sebaiknya pada pagi hari jam 06.00-08.00.


Bobot Himalayan setara dengan Hotot yaitu 0,8-1,3 kg


Himalayan tergolong kelinci jinak, pakannya tidak terlalu rewel. Lebih suka ditempatkan yang sepi dan bergaul dengan orang-orang yang sudah akrab. Suka memanjat, tapi tidak selincah kelinci Rex.


7. New Zealand

Biasa disebut 'terwelu Australi' oleh orang Jateng dan Jatim. Bobot rata-rata 4,5-5 kg, dianggap masih liar dan agak galak. Senang dalam keramaian manusia dan suka melompat-lompat kegirangan di atas tanah luas. Dagingnya tebal, mudah gemuk sehingga diternakkan sebagai kelinci pedaging. Beranak pinak 8-12 ekor anak setiap 2 bulannya.


Ciri khasnya adalah warna bulu putih bersih dengan mata merah murni dan telinga merah muda (terkadang hitam atau kemerah-merahan)


8. Dwarf Hotot

Berasal dari Jerman, kebanyakan warna bulunya putih mulus dengan bagian matanya dikelilingi warna hitam pekat. Berat badan hanya sekitar 1,4-1,8 kg. Jenis ini tergolong agresif dan nakal, memang kurang jinak terkadang suka menggigit. Larinya kencang dan suka melompat-lompat setinggi 1 meter, dan saat bermain seringkali memutar badannya di udara seperti pencak silat, sangat cocok dipelihara di kebun luas.


Keunggulan Hotot adalah kondisi fisiknya yang kuat


Lebih tahan dari kematian dibanding kelinci jenis lain terutama Angora dan Lop yang agak rapuh. Hotot seringkali lolos dari kematian sekalipun sering mencret, biasanya lebih cepat sembuh dari sakitnya. Kelemahan Hotot adalah tidak suka berdekatan dengan manusia, kontras berbeda dengan jenis Rex.


9. Satin

Jenis ini relatif jinak dan penurut terutama betina. Bobot Satin jantan 3,8-4,3 kg; sedangkan betina 4,2-5 kg.


Kelinci Satin berasal dari Amerika Serikat


Warna bulu Satin adalah: hitam, biru, california, chinchilla, coklat, perak, merah, putih bermata merah, krem, siam dan warna otter (otter hitam, otter biru, otter coklat, otter lilac). Beranak stabil 7-10 ekor anak dengan tingkat kematian 3 dalam umur 2 bulan.


10. Satin Mini 

Satin Mini adalah kelinci kecil komersial baru yang bertipe mantel Satin yang cantik.


Bobot kelinci Satin Mini 1,8-2,2 kg




Prinsipnya, kelinci memakan rumput dan sayuran, termasuk bijian. Namun cara yang efektif sebaiknya memakai konsentrat ditambah rumput dan sayuran (termasuk wortel). Standar pasokan pakan yang baik sebenarnya mudah, yakni selama makanan tersisa berarti dia sudah cukup kenyang. Selama ia mampu menghabiskan makanannya, tentu saja dia masih butuh makanan. Stok pakan konsentrat usahakan terus ada, hal ini untuk menjaga agar kelinci terhindar dari kelaparan, karena metabolisme kelinci itu 'tidak beres'.

Rumput dibutuhkan kelinci karena kandungan serat kasar beserta kandungan lainnya. Serat kasar yang ada pada jenis rumput kurus di lapangan (hay), silage, dan batang jagung, akar tanaman, pucuk daun ubi jalar; dan ubi jalar memiliki kandungan nutrisi dengan konsentrasi yang rendah. Rumput diberikan pada sore hari karena pada sore hari itu kelinci bersiap-siap beraktivitas sepanjang malam.

Sayuran hijau bagus sebagai menu siang hari sang kelinci seperti jenis basil, daun brokoli, hijauan beet, wortel/daun wortel, sprout, green pepper, parsley, labu, dsb. (hati-hati peptisida bikin mati kelinci). Jangan memberikan kangkung dan kol (kubis) karena kelinci akan mudah mengalami kembung dan kencing berkelanjutan, disamping itu kangkung dan kol juga mengakibatkan bau kencing kurang sedap.

Pola makan anak kelinci umur 17-60 hari sangat menentukan kualitas kesehatan bagi kelangsungan hidupnya. Sebaiknya stabilitas jenis pakan ditetapkan (misalnya pelet jenis A), dan jika ada perubahan harus dilakukan perlahan-lahan, bukan soal selera makan, tetapi karena pencernaannya akan terganggu. Makanan kelinci yang boleh berganti mendadak hanyalah jenis rumput selama dalam kondisi bersih dan baik. Makanan kelinci harus sesuai kebutuhan, karena mereka hanya mencerna dengan sekum, tanpa lambung.

Konsentrat adalah bahan pakan dengan nutrisi tinggi yang di dalamnya mencakup tanaman bijian dan residu dari proses industri bijian serta bahan lain untuk konsumsi manusia. Kandungan pelet yang baik harus mengacu pada isi kandungan karbohidrat, protein, lemak, mineral, dan vitamin. Konsentrat yang paling ideal dikemas dalam bentuk pelet. Pelet biasanya terbuat dari komponen bekatul padi halus, tepung jagung (atau tepung terigu), tetes tebu, garam, dll. Kebutuhan rata-rata pelet untuk kelinci dewasa diperkirakan 100-140 gram setiap hari. Sedangkan untuk kelinci bunting tentu lebih banyak yaitu mencapai 160-200 gram.


  Pelet bikinan Sutisna (Lembang):

Ampas tahu 50%, bekatul 40%, tepung jagung giling 9%, mineral (garam yodium) 0,5%, arang aktif (arang batok kelapa / karbon norit) 0,5%.


Pakan dengan bekatul (disajikan maksimal 4 jam, selebihnya harus dibuang), komposisinya:

Bekatul 1 kg, tepung jagung atau dedak gandum 0,5 kg, garam setengah sendok teh, kalsium khusus untuk hewan pemakan rumput setengah sendok teh.

Kalau mau hanya bekatul saja juga boleh, yaitu dengan cara bekatul dicampur dengan air secukupnya, jangan terlalu cair. Air penting untuk bekatul supaya kelinci benar-benar makan secara sehat.

Beberapa makanan berkualitas untuk kelinci: daun pepaya, wortel, ubi jalar, tomat.

Kelinci memerlukan serat di dalam pakannya, bukan karena nilai gizinya, tetapi untuk mencegah enteritis. Serat adalah zat yang terkandung dalam tumbuhan. Secara umum serat memiliki tiga komponen penting, yakni: selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan lignin. Keberadaan serat tidak sulit, ada di banyak buah-buahan seperti: jeruk, apel, kulit gandum, getah, termasuk biji-bijian, kacang, rumput-rumputan, dsb. Namun konsumsi serat harus dalam takaran yang baik, tidak berlebihan dan tidak kurang. Kelinci yang kurang serat akan mengalami gangguan pencernaan. Serat dibutuhkan setiap hari untuk melancarkan proses penghancuran makanan sehingga tinja yang berada di antara usus dan anus segera keluar.

Pemberian air minum sangat penting bagi kelinci (terutama habis melahirkan dan semasa menyusui), karena selain untuk mengatasi rasa haus juga berfungsi untuk melancarkan pencernaan. Anggapan bahwa kelinci tidak butuh air minum karna cukup mengonsumsi kandungan air dari rumput jelas menyesatkan. Minum dengan botol sangat disukai kelinci, kuman juga tidak mudah masuk ke dalam air.



Careful, stable feeding is a most necessary thing for a rabbit. One must know just like humans, rabbit also need balanced and nutritional diet to survive. Ensure that the change in diet should be carried out slowly and gradually, as rapid change can cause digestive disturbances. Fibers are significant for the normal functioning of the digestive system in rabbits. They are normally fed on fresh grass, hay, water, and vegetables. People should avoid feeding excess pellets to their rabbits as it may cause obesity and digestive problems. But pellets contain certain amount of fibers. People can offer other food also than pellets. Food like hay, grass and vegetables can also be offered to rabbit. The digestive system of rabbit is highly prone to severe upsets due to wrong diet. One should provide appropriate food to his rabbit, to prevent it from several digestive problems.

  Feeding a rabbit: 
1. Grass:  It is significant for the wild rabbit’s diet and contains high fibers which help in keeping the teeth and digestive system of a rabbit healthy. One should allow time to their pet rabbit to graze on grass. The grazing area should be restricted for the entry of predators. Owner should provide them hade in hot weather to rest and sleep. Make sure that the water you provide them to drink should be clean. Owner without gardens can take their rabbit to the park to graze on grass. You need to be alert if you are taking your rabbit to the park. Park should be free from dogs.
2. Hay:  It is a dried grass which contains same nutrient without the water. It is a good choice for a pet rabbit. Hay helps to reduce the boredom and behavioral problem of a rabbit. Make sure that the hay you offered to your rabbit should be clean and full of nutrition. It is important to offer fresh hay to your rabbit and one should remove the soiled or wet hay regularly.
3. Pellets:  It is a highly nutritional food. One should not feed excess pellets to their rabbit as it may cause obesity and digestive problems. One can feed it with grass and hay to make the teeth of their rabbit healthy. One should choose pellet with fiber content of above 18%. Make sure that the pellet you feed to your rabbit should be fresh.
4. Vegetables and fruit:  Rabbit like fresh fruit and vegetable in their diet. Make sure that the fruit and vegetable you offered to your rabbit should be fresh and healthy. Owner should know which vegetables and fruits are inappropriate for your rabbit. One should offer leafy green, broccoli, cauliflower, carrot to their rabbit despite of sugary food.

It is significant for the owner to provide healthy and fresh food to their rabbit in order to avoid obesity, digestive and dental disorder.



Kelinci memiliki kemampuan besar beranak. Sayangnya, di Indonesia populasinya tidak meningkat karena pemeliharanya kurang mampu mengembangbiakkan secara baik. Kita boleh memiliki empat betina dengan satu jantan untuk membuahi setiap seminggu sekali. Dalam hubungan seks, kelinci memang bisa berganti-ganti pasangan. Bawalah kelinci betina ke kandang pejantan, karena pada dasarnya hubungan seksual kelinci memiliki unsur dominatif, yakni pejantan mendominasi betina. Perkawinan kelinci sangat baik dilakukan pada pagi hari pukul 05.00-07.00 dan sore hari pukul 18.00-20.00. Masa kehamilan induk kelinci adalah 7-30 hari semenjak berhubungan seksual. Pada umumnya induk melahirkan pada usia kandungan 29 dan 30 hari. Namun bisa jadi lebih cepat, 28 hari atau bisa lebih lama, hingga 33 hari. Kelinci yang akan melahirkan selalu gelisah dan membangun gulungan menyerupai goa untuk kelahiran anak-anaknya, atau rumput di kotak yang tersedia. Setelah itu ia akan merontokkan bulu-bulunya dengan mulut dan kaki depannya.

Pada waktu melahirkan, posisi induk duduk tegak, matanya menatap bagian kelamin dan mulutnya menarik-narik ari-ari yang keluar, lalu mengunyah dan menelannya. Setelah anak-anaknya lahir satu persatu, biasanya induk menjilat-jilat darah yang keluar dan membersihkan anak-anaknya dengan jilatan kasih sayang hingga bersih. Biasanya induk melahirkan anak dengan dua hingga empat tahap. Misalnya, anak yang dikandung ada delapan, maka ia butuh 2-4 kali waktu istirahat.

Betina yang sudah beberapa kali melahirkan biasanya butuh waktu antara 15-30 menit untuk menyelesaikan semua kelahiran anak-anaknya. Sedangkan betina yang baru pertama kali melahirkan, sering menyelesaikannya hingga 1-2 jam. Ada juga yang sampai setengah hari baru tuntas.


Bayi kelinci usia 2 hari


Usai melahirkan, betina nampak letih. Dalam kondisi ini dibutuhkan sayuran setengah layu dan minuman yang cukup, minimal dua gelas air. Anak-anak kelinci hidup bergantung pada air susu induknya. Sang induk biasanya memberi anak-anaknya minum selama 2-4 menit. ASI kelinci mengandung antibodi yang sangat baik untuk melindungi anak-anaknya dari serangan penyakit. 3 hari dari kelahirannya akan nampak cikal bakal bulunya. Seminggu kemudian bulu akan semakin lebat. Pada usia 10 hari, mata anak-anak satu persatu mulai melek. Pada usia 17 hari, biasanya mereka sudah bisa berjalan lancar serta keluar dari kotak dengan cara melompat. Umur 15 hari ke atas ada baiknya mulai dilakukan pemisahan kandang secara khusus dengan sang induk agar anak-anaknya yang nakal dan agresif tidak menyerbu susu secara terus menerus. Pemisahan ini bukan untuk penyapihan, melainkan sebatas menghindari agresifitas menyusui pada siang hari. Biasanya pada malam hari itulah sang induk akan menyusui anak-anaknya. Pola menyusui induk sehari satu kali, biasanya dilakukan pada malam pukul 20.00 atau pukul 04.00.

Pada umur 12 hari terkadang kita perlu memberikan beberapa lembar rumput pada kerumunan sang anak, karena pada usia ini mereka akan memulai belajar makan. Jika tidak diberikan rumput, mereka akan belajar memakan apa saja terutama faces kering sang induk. Baru pada usia 21 hari mereka akan mampu mengunyah rumput halus dan menelannya. Pada umur 25 hari barulah gigitan mereka sempurna; terutama wortel, sayuran layu, dan sedikit pelet sangat bagus diberikan. Pada usia ini anak-anak kelinci harus mulai dibatasi pertemuan dengan induknya yaitu hanya pada siang hari pukul 09.00-16.00 agar sang induk bisa lebih nyaman dari serbuan menyusu anak-anaknya. Setelah 30 hari, mulai dipasok makanan yang bergizi. Anak dipisahkan dari induknya sejak pagi hingga sore, menjelang senja satukan kembali hingga pagi; hal ini sampai usia 40 hari. Setelah itu barulah bisa dipisahkan seterusnya. Masa hidup kelinci berkisar 6-12 tahun.

Pada dasarnya kelinci adalah hewan pembersih. Ia selalu membersihkan dirinya rutin setiap ada kotoran pada tubuhnya. Kelinci dewasa (di atas 4 bulan) bisa dimandikan dua minggu sekali (tidak boleh mengguyur air ke bagian kepala), setelah dimandikan harus dikeringkan segera (sebaiknya memakai hair dryer).


Bayi kelinci berumur seminggu




1. Luka.

Bisa karna digigit tikus, kucing, anjing, atau digigit kelinci lain; atau terkena goresan benda tajam, kaki lecet terkena kandang kawat yang tajam. Kelinci yang terkena luka jangan ditaruh di tanah bebas karena bisa terserang lalat atau kutu secara langsung. Lalat yang masuk ke dalam luka bisa bertelur dan menetaskan belatung sehingga menggerogoti luka kelinci, terutama jika luka itu menimpa sekitar telinga. Jika belatung suka menetas di atas luka maka dalam hitungan jam mereka akan menggerogoti daging dan berkembang biak pesat mencapairibuan ekor dalam waktu sehari.

Bersihkan luka menggunakan air hangat. Kemudian diseka dengan rivanol atau cairan garam hangat. Setelah itu berikan obat merah / betadine secara merata.


2. Radang (kornea) mata.

Biasanya karena infeksi, trauma, ketidaknormalan lapisan air mata (sering disebabkan oleh tekanan pada gigi) atau gangguan yang sifatnya sistemik atau nutrisional. Trauma atau goresan kornea pada kelinci lain, atau akibat lembaran rumput kering bisa berakibat infeksi dan mengakibatkan luka kornea yang dalam. Bila terkena kondisi ini, seringkali tampak mengalami necrotic ulcer berwarna kuning pada bagian tengah kornea buram yang dikelilingi oleh oleh conjunctiva. Jika tidak cepat diatasi, sering membengkak merah berair di sekeliling mata.

Bersihkan mata dengan boorwater pelan-pelan. Olesi salep mata topikal yang mengandung asam fusidic.


3. Tungau telinga.

Tungau (Psoroptes cuniculi) adalah binatang yang sangat kecil (berwarna merah muda) yang biasa hidup di air. Tungau sangat lekat jika menempel di badan dan terasa gatal sekali, mudah berpindah ke kelinci yang lain melalui kontak langsung, terkadang melalui lalat. Pada daun telinga sering muncul sejenis kerak berwarna coklat dan cairan bau. Kelinci yang terkena tungau ini akan cedera, mengakibatkan stress, hilang keseimbangan, kejang, dan semakin lama kurus kerontang.

Bersihkan luka telinga dengan air hangat memakai kain hingga bersih. Oleskan minyak kelapa yang masih asli (bukan bekas menggoreng) 2-3 kali sehari. Atau bisa juga diolesi dengan obat pinisilin 3 kali sehari.


4. Jamur kulit.

Kelinci yang hidup di kandang kotor seringkali terkena penyakit jamur di sekitar kulit, bulunya akan menebal kusut. Bagian kulit akan nampak berwarna merah berbintik.

Bagian yang terkena jamur dibersihkan, bulu dicukur, kemudian kulit bisa diolesi salep obat kulit 88 atau ultrasilin. Akan lebih baik jika sebelum diobati, kulit kelinci diberi obat merah / yodium karena lecet2 bekas garukan.


5. Bisul.

Bisul muncul akibat dari darah kotor yang tersumbat atau infeksi kulit berupa benjolan yang membesar; di dalamnya berisi nanah dan terasa panas. Bisul bisa tumbuh di bagian kulit badan manapun, biasanya di sekitar lipatan tubuh seperti: leher, lengan, paha, dan kulit kepala.

Tumbuklah beberapa daun sosor bebek, setelah disaring airnya campur dengan madu secukupnya. lantas minumkan pada kelinci, sisanya diusapkan pada kulit yang terkena bisul. Cara lain, daun lidah buaya dikupas kulitnya, dilumatkan, tambahkan sedikit garam, lalu ditempelkan pada bisul. Jika terlihat bisul sudah cukup matang, bisa kita bedah pelan-pelan untuk mengeluarkan nanah serta darah kotor, berikan obat merah agar darah sehat tidak ikut keluar.


6. Syaraf (tengeng).

Bila kita menyaksikan kelinci bengkok kepala, dibilang tengeng (torticollis) karena posisi kepala tidak normal dan tampak menderita. Mungkin disebabkan otitis (penyakit syaraf atau radang telinga yang ditandai: nyeri, demam, hilangnya pendengaran, telinga mendenging dan pusing). Kemungkinan lain, munculnya kuman Pasteurella Multocida yang menyerang syaraf kelinci.

Pemberian antibiotik dengan takaran yang tepat barangkali adalah langkah praktisnya.


7. Kembung dan Diare (penyakit pencernaan).

Kembung disebabkan munculnya gas dalam perut. Biasanya penyakit kembung ini menyerang kelinci anakan dan kelinci menyusui. Kelinci sehat dewasa yang tidak menyusui terkadang masih bisa diselamatkan, sementara kelinci hamil dan anak-anak sangat sulit. Pola makan yang tidak teratur serta kekurangan air juga sangat berpotensi menimbulkan gas. Kelinci kembung malas makan, hilang indra penciuman, dan cuek terhadap lingkungan sekitar. Kelinci kembung yang bermula dari proses mencret, biasanya dalam dua hari kemudian akan menampakkan perutnya yang besar dan tidak mau bergerak. Proses kembung kedua, kelinci tidak mengalami mencret sekalipun. Jika kelinci tidak menyatu dengan kelinci lain, gejala kembung ini bisa dilihat dari tidak adanya kotoran. Bila kelinci tidak berak dalam sehari, maka sangat mungkin perutnya sedang tidak beres.

Ramuan dari bahan alami: 3 daun pupus jambu kluthuk, 2 pupus daun delima, pupus daun pisang secukupnya, garam sepucuk sendok teh, madu satu sendok teh.

Daun-daun tersebut ditumbuk sampai halus dan diperas untuk diambil airnya. Campurkan sedikit air hangat bersama garam dan madu, kemudian diminumkan.

Kalau kembung, bisa diberi 1/2 tablet Magasida.

Kalau mencret, beri 1/2 tablet Flagyl atau Fladex (pagi dan malam).


8. Lumpuh.

Suatu ketika kelinci dapat mengalami lumpuh mendadak, pagi harinya terlihat sehat tetapi tiba-tiba sorenya lumpuh. Urutkan dengan lampu 25 watt pada ke 4 kaki kelinci dari atas ke bawah dan sebaliknya secara bergantian. Beri obat 1/2 tablet Remachil.


Happy smile.....tanda kelinci sehat


Rabbits are quite sensitive and fragile pet. Therefore, it is important for the rabbit owner to meet their entire requirements. One such requirement of the rabbit is hutches. Rabbit hutches are the protective enclosures that are meant to provide housing and security to the rabbits from the natural elements. Moreover, it provides adequate space to relax and stretch to rabbits. It is significant for one to provide housing to his rabbit in order to make it feel more secure. Owner must choose right hutch for his rabbit. There are lots of things that one should consider before purchasing rabbit hutches.

Guide for rabbit hutches:
1. Size of rabbit hutch: It is important for one to consider the size of his rabbit when buying hutch for it. Ideally, the size of the rabbit hutch should be at least four times of your rabbit.
# Width: The width of the rabbit hutch should be enough so that rabbit can stretch out, rest and relax properly. It should be wide enough to allow you rabbit to lie with its legs stretched.
# Height: The height of rabbit hutch should be set according to the rabbit size. It should be enough so that rabbit can stand on its hind legs without its ears touching the roof.
# Length: The length of rabbit hutch should be 3 to 4 times of your rabbit so that he can take 3 or 4 hops easily and avoid bumping his nose at the end.
2. Door of rabbit hutch: The door of your rabbit hutch should be big enough so that the rabbit and the trash pot can slide through it.
3. Material for rabbit hutch: There are two types of rabbit hutch that one can choose for their rabbit - the wooden enclosure or the wire cage enclosure. The wooden enclosure is the most common rabbit hutch. One must consider good quality plywood for the construction of this rabbit hutch, if he wants his rabbit hutch to last for a long.
One can also have the wire cage enclosure for their rabbit. The wire cage enclosure should be made with a wooden frame. They are quite easy to keep. Moreover, they are easily available on the near by pet store. It is up to your preference to choose between the two rabbit hutches.
4. Maintain rabbit hutch: It is important for one to keep his rabbit hutch neat and clean. It is quite challenging job but one have to do it frequently in order to make his rabbit survive for long. They require clean and healthy environment to stay healthy.


Keluarga sehat - negara kuat


It is essential for your rabbit to have hutch where he can relax and stretch properly. Make sure that the hutch you provide to your rabbit is big enough, as small hutch can affect your rabbit’s health by causing spine problems, muscle wastage and obesity.



Ringkasan dari:  Faiz Manshur. KELINCI. 2009. Bandung: Nuansa.





Caring For & Breeding Silkworms / Ulat Sutera


History of Silk
The discovery of the product silk from the silkworm species Bombyx mori occurred around 2700 BC. According to Chinese tradition the bride of Emperor Huang Ti, a 14-year-old girl called Hsi Ling Shi, discovered the invention of the first silk reel. Sericulture, the cultivation of the silkworm, spread through China making silk a highly valued commodity much sought after by other countries. In 139 BC the world's longest trade route was opened stretching from Eastern China to the Mediterranean Sea. It was named the Silk Road after its most valuable commodity. By 300 AD the secret of silk production had reached India and Japan.
Silk manufacture eventually reached Europe and America. During the 18th and 19th centuries Europeans produced several major advancements in silk production. By the 18th century England led Europe in silk manufacturing because of English innovations in the textiles industry. These innovations included improved silk-weaving looms, power looms and roller printing. Between 1855 and 1865 an epidemic called Pebrine disease, caused by a small parasite, raged through the industry. It was the French scientist Louis Pasteur who discovered that this could be prevented through simple microscopic examination of adult silkmoths. Much research was carried out on silkworms at this time, ultimately setting the stage for a more scientific approach to silk production. Silk production today is a combination of old and modern techniques.

Silkworms are the larva of a moth (Bombyx mori) native to Asia that spins a cocoon of fine, strong, lustrous fiber that is the source of commercial silk. The culture of silkworms is called sericulture. The various species of silkworms raised today are distinguished by the quality of the silk they produce. Silkworms feed on the leaves of the mulberries (genus Morus) and sometimes on the Osage orange (Maclura pomifera).
Bombyx Mori will not bite, making an ideal worm for feeding most reptiles, amphibians and other animals, and they offer great nutritional value.

Mulberry Leaves / Daun Murbei
Newborns are small enough for most baby reptiles to eat and young silkworms can even be fed so they will grow to a desired size. Silkworms are soft-bodied, slow moving and can grow to 3 inches in length. They are also relatively fast growing, reaching about 3 inches in length and ready to cocoon in as little as 25 - 28 days.


  Silkworm and Cocoon / Ulat Sutera dan Kepompong
Silkworms go through four stages of development, as do most insects: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Click here to see a life cycle chart. The adult (imago) stage is the silkworm moth. The larva is the silkworm caterpillar. The pupa is what the silkworm changes into after spinning its cocoon before emerging as a moth. Since the silkworm grows so much, it must shed its skin four times while it is growing. These stages-within-a-stage are called instars.
Today, the silkworm moth lives only in captivity. Silkworms have been domesticated so that they can no longer survive independently in nature,
particularly since they have lost the ability to fly. All wild populations are extinct. Also contributing to their extinction is the extraordinary fact that they only eat mulberry leaves.
Silkworms have been used by researchers to study pheromones or sexual attractant substances. The pheromones are released by female moths and the males detect the chemicals with olfactory hairs on their antennae. This allows the male to find the female for mating. The male antennae are made of many small hairs to increase the chances of picking up small amounts of the pheromones over long distances.

How to Grow Your Worms to the Perfect Size
The great thing about silkworms is that they only grow as much as you feed them, and they can go for up to a week without food. Keep in mind, however, that silkworms become dehydrated after a few days without food, and should be feed at least once daily in order to remain healthy. But, in general, if you have too many silkworms you can feed them a few times per week and they'll stay alive until you need them without growing too much larger.
Wash hands thoroughly before handling the worms or the food or they may develop bacterial problems. Using a cheese grater, grate a small amount of food onto the worms and repeat until the worms reach the desired size. For best results, maintain temperatures between 78° and 88° F.
Excessive condensation forming in the container after feeding is the leading cause of failure. If this condensation does form, take the lid off your container and allow the container and old food to completely dry out. In the future, make sure the previous food is dry before feeding again. Old damp food is a breeding ground for mold and other problems, dry food is not.

  Newly hatched silkworms are tiny
As the silkworms grow, you may need to transfer your worms to a larger plastic container. The lid needs to have ventilation holes. If not, you need to vent the lid so the silkworms won't suffocate and to allow condensation to dissipate. You can also use a shoebox. The old food and waste matter can be removed, but does not have to be if it remains thoroughly dry.


Under ideal conditions (78° to 88° F and allowed to feed nearly continuously) silkworms can go from egg to 1 inch in length in about 12 days, and 3 inches in under 30 days. The worms will begin to spin cocoons at about 28 - 30 days old or when they are between 2 1/2 and 3 inches long.


  From Cocoon to Moth / Dari Kepompong menjadi Kupu 
Silkworm moths emerge from their cocoons after spending about two to three weeks metamorphosing. As moths, they do not eat or fly. They will usually mate, lay eggs and die within a week. Fertile eggs turn from yellow to gray or purple in a week or so. If the eggs don't hatch within 3 weeks, they usually will not hatch until the following year (see above—from egg to larva).



  Proper Handling Procedures
Again, in order for your worms to stay healthy for many weeks, you'll need to keep the silkworms as dry as possible. If condensation builds up during feeding, vent the container lid to prevent excess humidity.
Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly before handling the worms or their food. Silkworms can be susceptible to bacteria if you don't properly handle them. As long as the container environment remains dry, your worms will be fine.
Mold develops from high temperatures and high humidity. If the worms are covered with droppings, silk and old food for too long, mold may develop and kill the worms. If mold does develop, grate about 1/4 inch of food (sold separately) all over the worms with a cheese grater. As the worms crawl to the top of the new food pile you can transfer them off the moldy food and place them into a new container.
Silkworms are susceptible to bruising and dying if not handled with care, especially as they grow larger.
When handling and transferring the worms, be very gentle.






1. Introduction
Sericulture is an agro industry (combining both agriculture and industry), the end product of which is silk. It is a labour intensive activity providing direct and indirect employment to a large number of families. India has the unique distinction of producing all the four types of silk viz., mulberry, muga, tasar and eri. About 14% of the global raw silk is produced in India, of which more than 65% is mulberry silk, mostly produced in Karnataka. Besides meeting the ever growing domestic demand, silk in its various forms is also exported and this sector is one of the important foreign exchange earner for the country. Of the factors responsible for increasing the production of silk the quality of mulberry plays the most important role.

2. Climate and Soil
Mulberry is a perennial plant and once established in the field, continues to produce in full form for at least 15 years. Though arboreal in nature, it is trained as low bush for commercial exploitation. Mulberry is a hardy plant and can tolerate varied range of agro-climatic conditions. However, the most suitable range of conditions include a temperature range of 20-300C with sunshine of 9.00 to 13.00 hours per day. On an average, mulberry requires 50 to 60 mm of water once in a week. Under such conditions (prevailing in southern tropics of India), 5-6 crops can be harvested in a year, whereas in temperate conditions, 2-3 crops are harvested.
As mulberry is a deep-rooted plant, the soil for of mulberry garden should be fertile, deep, friable, sandy loam to clayey loam in texture and porous with good water holding capacity. Soils with a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5 are ideal.

3. Land preparation
Generally flat lands are suitable for irrigated mulberry cultivation. If the slope is more than 15%, suitable land development measures such as contour bunding, bench terracing, etc. should be adopted.
Land should be prepared by deep ploughing upto a depth of 30-45 cm in order to loosen the soil and thereafter with a country plough or tractor to bring the soil to a fine tilth. Weeds, stones should be removed during the preparatory stage. Basal dose of farm yard manure @ 20 tonnes per hectare is recommended, which has to be thoroughly incorporated into the soil.
Farm lands along the highways, in the vicinity of factories, area irrigated by raw sewage and untreated effluents, plots abetting other gardens with intensive pesticide usage, water logged areas and tobacco grown land are unsuitable locations for mulberry cultivation.

4. Selection of Variety
The criteria for selection of variety includes fertility of the land, water availability, region specificity, extent of garden and problematic soils. The yield potential of high yielding varieties can be best realised in high fertility soils and they respond to intensive irrigation. Wherever the size of operation is bigger, it is advisable to have a separate chawki garden for which a variety like S-36 can be chosen in addition to a high yielding variety for rearing late age worms (M-5, S-36 & V-1). In alkaline soils, the variety AR-12 is suitable.

5. Planting materials
Plantation of mulberry garden can be taken up both by cuttings and saplings. However, saplings are always better than cuttings as a planting material in respect of quick and better establishment. Two cuttings / one sapling are planted at each spot in desired spacing, Cuttings are planted keeping one bud exposed while the saplings are planted in pits opened at the spot.
i) Preparation of cuttings : Cuttings should be prepared from well-matured 6-8 months old shoots of about 1.5 cm diameter. Cuttings of 15-20 cm length with 3-4 healthy buds are selected for plantation.
ii) Raising of saplings : Nursery beds with the dimension of 5 m X 1.5 m are prepared. The land is dug to a depth of 30-40 cm and the soil should be pulverised well. FYM is applied @ 15 kg per bed and mixed well with the soil. Some quantity of sand is also added to heavy (clayey) soils to make the soil loose and friable, while some quantity of tank silt or other well decomposed organic matter has to be applied to sandy soils to increase the water holding capacity. Cuttings should be planted in nursery beds with a spacing of 15 cmX10 cm. The full length of cutting is pushed into soil keeping only one bud exposed above the ground. It should be irrigated twice a week. Fertilizer is applied @25:25:25 (N:P:K) kilogram per hectare after 5-6 weeks when plants sprout well and the root system is established. Saplings of about 80-90 days old can be used for planting. While uprooting the saplings, maximum care should be taken to avoid damage to the root system.

6. Planting
Pit system is ideal in 90 x 90 cm spacing. Pits of 35cm3 are dug and left for one month, which are later filled with FYM and soil at 1: 2 ratio. Trenches of 35 cm x 35 cm are also cent convenient to take up plantation. It is preferable to start the plantation during the rainy season.
In hilly areas, 3 cuttings of 20-22 cm length are planted in each pit at a spacing of 15 cms. Cuttings not sprouting in 4-5 weeks need to be replaced by saplings to ensure the required plant density.

7. Pruning & Training
In order to get good leaf yield for 15-20 years, it is necessary to give a good and sturdy frame to the plant. After the planting, the saplings need to be cut at 10-15 cms above the ground level within a week of planting. After the growth period of six months, the plants are to be cut at a height of 25cm above the ground level keeping 3-4 strong branches.
In leaf picking method, the first bottom pruning has to be taken up at a height of 20-25 cm from ground level and second bottom pruning is done (after 3 leaf harvests) again at 30 cm height from ground level. Afterwards, in leaf harvest method, the middle pruning at a height of 60-70 cm has to be followed once in a year during Jan-Feb and in shoot harvesting method, each shoot harvest done at 25 cm height which itself acts as pruning.

9. Irrigation
Among the various inputs, irrigation ranks high in giving quick and good results. Regular irrigation at an interval of 8-10 days is ideal. Normally, 1.5 to 2 acre inch of water per irrigation is sufficient. In case of water scarcity, drip irrigation can also be adopted.

10. Yield
Generally the expected annual yield is 40-50 tonnes of leaves per acre. In shoot harvest method, harvesting can be done at an interval of 70 days (5 harvests). In case of leaf harvest method, first harvest is taken 70 days after 1st pruning and 2nd and 3rd harvest (coinciding with 2nd bottom pruning) at an interval of 55 days. The fourth harvest is taken 70 days after the 3rd harvest and 5th and 6th at an interval of 55 days.

11. Rearing
The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is the chief source for production of fabulous mulberry silk in sericulture industry. Throughout its rearing period it has to be looked after carefully and nourished with good quality mulberry leaves. Provision for optimum environmental conditions and protection from pests and diseases are the other essential requirements. Depending on the number of generations per year, the silkworms are classified into univoltine, bivoltine or multivoltine breeds. Univoltine and bivoltines breeds are specific for temperate areas whereas multivoltines are for tropical areas. Silkworm rearing involves both technical and commercial aspects. In tropical areas, where mulberry grows luxuriantly throughout the year, 5-6 rearings are conducted in a year while in temperate/ sub-tropical areas it is common to raise one/ two crops.
From hatching to its full grown stage, the silk worms pass through five instars and the worms up to stage three are called young age worms or Chawki. As they are susceptible to infections and vulnerable to adverse weather conditions, special care is required for rearing of chawkis. The various stages involved in chawki rearing are indicated below:
a. Obtain quality eggs : Disease free DFLs to be used.
b. Incubation & Brushing : Ideal storage conditions of 25 to 26o C. temperature and 85% RH, 16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness ensures uniform hatching (normally between 9-12 days egg laying). Brush newly hatched larvae on to the rearing beds and sprinkle freshly chopped tender leaves of 0.5 to 1 cm sq.
c. Feed the right quality leaf : Highly nutritious leaves in adequate quantities at suitable intervals of time to be fed. Top 3-4 full grown leaves immediately below the growing buds are suitable.
d. Provide right Environment : 26-28 o C. and 80-85% RH
e. Feed Management : Fresh chopped leaves are spread thinly on the dry beds
f. Keeping the Beds Clean
g. Care during Moulting : Provide with optimum temperature and humidity conditions and also necessary spacing and leaf feed. There has to be low to low or no feeding during moulting and maintain a temperature of 24-25o C and RH of 65-70%. The worms will attain maximum growth in minimum time and will take 3 to 3 ½ in the first instar and 2 ½ to 3 days in the second instar to go into moult. The third instar is crucial as this is the intermediary stage between the chawki and late age worms.


Hamparan tanaman murbei

Rearing of Late Age Worms begins from third instar. These worms are voracious feeders. The various stages for rearing are indicated below :
a. Ensure disinfection two days before brushing of worms. The rearing room and equipments should be disinfected.
b. Provide sufficient quantity of leaf. The late age stages consumes 95% of the total feed. Mulberry leaves to be harvested with optimum maturity with relatively low moisture, high proteins and fibres with less carbohydrate content.
c. Ensure good environment : Maintain 24-25o C temperature and 70-75% humidity. The space requirement for 100 DFLs - for multi-voltine 100-200 sft and 200-400 sft. space for 4th and 5th instar, respectively : For bi-voltine 115 to 225 sft and 225 to 550 sft. space for 4th and 5th instar, respectively.
d. Ensure hygenic conditions
e. Protect from natural enemies like Uzi fly
f. Mounting of ripe worms : Ripe worms to be picked on completion of 6-7 days after passing 4th moult and provide 26-27 o C and 55-60% RH to ripe worms.
g. Harvesting of Cocoons : Suitable mountages are used for mounting optimum density of worms (40-45 worms/ sft.) are maintained. Mountages with worms not to be exposed to direct sun light and humid conditions to be avoided. Cocoons harvested on 5th to 6th day after mounting which ensures complete development of pupae. The qualities of good cocoons include uniform size and shape, rich silk content, less floss, more shell weight, uniform shape, uniform build of cocoons.
h. Cocoon Yield : The average yield is 40-45 kg. (CB) and 45-50 kg (BV) from 100 DFLs.
The entire process of silk worm rearing from egg hatching to cocoon takes about 26-27 days.

12. Construction of Rearing House
Mulberry silkworm rearing, being completely domesticated, demands specified environmental conditions like temperature (24-28oC) and relative humidity (70-85%). It is therefore necessary to evolve measures for economic cooling through selection of proper material for wall and roof fabrication, orientation of building, construction method, design, etc. Further, enough space must be available to carry out leaf preservation, chawki rearing, late age rearing and moulting. It should also be convenient enough to conduct effective cleaning and disinfection.
The size of the rearing house depends upon the quantum and type of rearing. The different types of rearing are, shelf or stand rearing, platform rearing and floor rearing. Shelf rearing requires minimum space and is most common in India. A floor area of 150 sft. can provide rearing space for 100 CB DFLs or 75 BV DFLs.
In platform rearing, the larvae are shifted to shoot rearing platforms after 3rd moult. Ideal size of each platform will be 5 x 25 ft. which can accommodate 50 DFLs upto spinning. Platforms can be arranged in two/ three tiers with a gap of 2-3 ft. A building floor area of 250-300 sft. is required to rear 100 DFLs of CB layings or 75 DFLs of BV layings.


Cocoon dipintal menjadi benang sutera


Ulat sutera (Bombyx mori) yang memakan daun murbei (Morus sp) dikembangbiakkan salah satu tempatnya ada di Padepokan Dayang Sumbi, Desa Pamoyanan, Kecamatan Cimenyan, Kabupaten Bandung. Ulat sutera di tempat tersebut adalah ulat sutera ras Jepang yang bercirikan antara lain memiliki dua tanda setengah lingkaran di bagian atas tubuh menyerupai tato pada tubuh manusia.

Ulat sutera selama hidupnya mengalami metamorfosis sempurna. Fase hidupnya dimulai dari telur, ulat (larva), kepompong (pupa), dan kupu-kupu. Telur ulat sutera pertama kali akan menetas menjadi ulat kecil yang memiliki panjang sekitar 3 milimeter. Ulat tersebut memakan daun murbei muda (pucuk) selama 3 hari, tidur, dan berganti kulit.

Selama hidupnya, ulat sutera berganti kulit 4 kali dan melalui 5 periode makan yang disebut instar. Peralihan dari satu instar ke instar lain ditandai dengan berhentinya makan, tidur, dan pergantian kulit pada tubuh ulat sutera.

Setelah mencapai instar 5, ulat sutera akan berhenti makan, dan mulai membuat kepompong selama 2-3 hari. Pada tahap ini, ulat akan membentuk kepompong (kokon). Fase kokon sebagai tahap akhir proses metamorfosis yang lamanya 11 hari. Kupu yang keluar dari kokon akan melakukan perkawinan dan regenerasi.

Serat dapat dipanen saat ulat masih berbentuk pupa di dalam kepompong. Sebelum serat sutera dapat ditarik dari dalam kepompong, kepompong harus direbus dalam air panas selama 10 menit untuk mematikan pupa dan menghilangkan zat perekat. Serat sutera itulah yang selanjutnya dipilin menjadi benang.

Benang sutera dapat ditenun menjadi kain yang hingga saat ini tetap menjadi primadona bahan busana. Selain itu, kepompong ulat sutera juga dimanfaatkan untuk berbagai hiasan berbentuk bunga ataupun aksesori busana.








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