ADVENTURES OF  VERINA & VINCENT  IN EUROPE

 

 

ROME

 

Rome panoramic, seen from the Dome Saint Peter Basilica, Vatican

 

Roma adalah kota dengan sejuta situs bersejarah bernilai tinggi. Kota Roma sudah ada sejak 753 SM, di kota inilah kekaisaran Romawi berdiri. Wilayah kekuasaannya meliputi hampir seluruh daratan Eropa, Afrika Utara, dan Timur Tengah. Menurut UNESCO, sekitar 60% peninggalan zaman dahulu terdapat di Italia; dan di Italia, sebagian besar ada di Roma.

Pada abad pertama, Roma merupakan kota terbesar di dunia. Pada puncak kejayaannya, wilayah kekaisaran Romawi membentang dari Skotlandia hingga Syria, dan dari Sahara di selatan hingga Rhine dan Danube di utara. Romawi tetap sangat unggul selama abad III.

 

It's a monument entitled to Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoia, first king of Italy. The project started with G. Sacconi in 1885 and was completed in 1935.

The "Altare della Patria" (the central part of the monument) opened in 1925. There was buried the Unknown Warrior, symbol of all people dead during First World War. The style of Vittoriano follows Greeks and Latin criteria.

 

Construction of Imperial Fora continued for a period of a century and a half, beginning from Julius Caesar and finishing with Traian. With the birth of Roman Empire the old Roman Forum revealed to be too little and not appropriate for the ever-increasing population of Rome and its new role as the capital of nearly all the know world of the epoch. The treasures brought here from other countries and the best architects were involved in creation of this huge monumental area between the Roman Forum and the lower slopes of the Quirinal and Viminal, compound of five Fora: Forum of Caesar (commercial center), Forum of Augustus (religious and moral center), Forum of Vespasian (cultural center with libraries and museums), Forum of Nerva (connecting Forum of Augustus and Forum of Vespasian), Forum of Traian (political and commercial center). All the Fora were connected and the whole area was arranged according to a definite plan. In this political- administrative and commercial center of the city was concentrated the wealth from all over the world in form of precious marbles and bronzes, works of art and books containing entire knowledge of that era. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance the Fora were pillaged for their building material and robbed of their marbles and bronzes, and the are was covered by the new constructions.

 

Roman Forum (peninggalan istana keluarga Kerajaan Romawi)

Paling barat Roman Forum, ada Pura Apollo Medice  (431BC-34BC)

 

Roman Forum, peninggalan kejayaan kekaisaran Romawi

 

Aqueduct (Aqua Claudia) at Palatine Hill
Emperor Domitian extended the Aqua Claudia to the Palatine

 

Foremost among these monuments are the Roman Forum and the Imperial Forum, ancient centers of commerce and religion; the Baths of Caracalla, built about AD 217 and now used as the setting for summer opera performances; the Catacombs, ancient tunnels beneath the city in which early Christians practiced their religion and were buried; and the Castel Sant’Angelo, built as a mausoleum for the Roman emperor Hadrian (AD 135-139) and converted into a fort in the Middle Ages.

 

Seen from the Colosseum towards Arch of Constantine (left) and Roman Forum (Temple of Venus and Roma, right)

 

Palatine Hill

 

 

Setelah sekian lama menjadi kota utama di Eropa, Roma tetap merupakan monumen yang tak tergantikan sepanjang masa, dari sejak jaman Etruscan hingga jaman modern. Semasa sejarah pertama dahulu, pada masa raja Etruscan dan di bawah Republik digambarkan dengan beberapa relics;

Long a major city of Europe, Rome has become an unparalleled repository of monuments of all periods, from the Etruscan era to modern times. The period of Rome’s early history, under Etruscan kings and under the Republic, is represented by relatively few relics; the legacy of the following period, the Roman Empire, is extensive in comparison. Ancient city walls, triumphal arches, great public meeting places, churches, and palaces are all found in Rome.

 

Circo Massimo, ajang pacuan kuda berkereta jamannya Ben Hur (abad pertama). Kenangan bersama Romo Paskalis, SVD

 

It was erected by Domitian in honor of his father Vespasian and brother Titus, starting from 81 A.D. He wanted particularly celebrate their victories in the Judaean War and conquering of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 A.D. Thus this monument could be considered as an exceptional historical proof of the beginning of the "Jewish question". Tradition says that not even one Jew ever passed under the arch, unwilling to pay homage to those, who destroyed their temple. Two very worn relieves represent Rome guiding the Imperial quadriga with Titus and Victory; and the other   shows the triumphal procession bringing the spoils from Jerusalem. In the center of the panelled vault is the Apotheosis of Titus, who is mounting the eagle. The arch is 15m high and 13.5 meter large.
During the Middle Ages the arch was incorporated into the fortress of the Frangipane.
In 1821 G.Valadier was cleaned from the constructions which grew over and around it. It was one of the subjects of Pius VII's program in favor of the ancient monuments.

 

Piazza del Campidoglio

 

The arch of Titus
(Tugu yang didirikan di Rome sekitar tahun 81 Sesudah Masehi oleh Kerajaan Romawi Domitian, untuk mengenang penaklukan Yerusalem oleh kakaknya yaitu Titus, yang menguasai Kerajaan Romawi tahun 79-81 Sesudah Masehi)

It is situated at the highest point on the Via Sacra, the oldest street in Rome. It was constructed sometime following the death of Titus in 81 A.D. by the emperor Domitian. It commemorates Titus's capture of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

That event began the Jewish Diaspora, that saw Jews scattered first from their native Judea to Babylonia (present day Iraq), then to Spain, from which they were expelled in the late 15th century by Isabella, then to Poland and eastern Europe, then to the United States and now, in many cases, back to modern day Judea which is now the nation of Israel.

 

The Arch of Constantine

The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312.

Dedicated in 315, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by spolia, the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

 

 The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch, erected c. 315 CE to commemorate the triumph of Constantine I after his victory over Maxentius in the battle at the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE

The arch is located in the valley of the Colosseum, between the Palatine Hill and the Colosseum, along the road taken by the triumphal processions

 

The Arch of Septimus Severus

This is the largest and best conserved of all triumphal arches in Rome. It was built in 315 by Senate and Roman people in honour of emperor Constantine and his victory over Maxentius in the battle at Saxa Rubra on October 28, 312. The arch is compound of the elements taken from the other ancient monuments. The Corinthian columns of ancient yellow stone come from the monument to Domitian; two relives inside are from the Forum of Trajan; the statues of barbarians prisoners over the attic come from a monument of the epoch of Trajan or Marcus Aurelius; eight medallions on the two facades, with finely carved hunting scenes and pastoral sacrifices belong to an unknown monument set up by Hadrian; eight high-relives located near the inscriptions on the attic were taken from the arch of Marcus Aurelius.
 
Trajan's Column in Forum Trajan built in 106BC-13BC
Trajan's Column sits at the western end of the Trajan Forum. It was built to commemorate Trajan's victory over the Dacians, who came from what is now modern Romania.
It was built in 113 A.D. and stands 97 feet tall. A statue of Trajan himself once stood atop the monument. That statue was replaced by a statue of Peter in 1588.
 
Kolom Trajan untuk memperingati kemenangan atas perlawanan Dacians di Eropa Tenggara, sekarang ini adalah barat Romania Pusat
 
Only the bases of the columns and the small bas-relieves of the frieze of the minor archways belong to the Constantine's epoch, all of them prove the degrade of artistic quality and change of the style.
In the Middle Ages the arch, as all the other monument of this zone, was incorporated in the fortifications of the Frangipane family. It was freed and restored only in the 18th century.

Roman monuments range from the almost perfectly preserved Pantheon (founded 27 BC; rebuilt AD 118-128), considered one of the finest surviving temples of antiquity, to the still impressive—although partly destroyed—Colosseum (opened AD 80), a huge amphitheater that was the scene of gladiatorial combats and other spectacles.

It took only eight years to erect the greatest monument of ancient Rome. Its original name is Flavian Amphitheatre, because of the form of the construction as an amphitheatre and because it was built by emperors of the Flavian dynasty: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.  Vespasian begun it in 72 A.D., Titus completed the works in 80 A.D. and Domitian added the higher steps and some service zones beneath the arena. The inaugural festival lasted 100 days, during which many gladiators and 5000 wild beasts were killed.

 

Prajurit Legiun Romawi modern

Colosseum

The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia)

 

Gladiators from Indonesia smile at Colosseum

 

The popular name "Colosseo" or "Colosseum" was first mentioned in the 7th century in the writings of the venerable Bede, who quotes a prophecy of Anglo-Saxon pilgrims: "Quamdiu stabit Colyseus stabit et Roma; quamdiu cadet Colyseus cadet et Roma; quamdiu cadet Roma cadet et mondus", i.e. "Till the Colosseum stands the Rome will stand; when the Colosseum falls the Rome shell fall; when Rome falls the world shall fall".

The name "Colosseum" derived from a colossal statue of emperor Nero (35m high) with the head in form of the Sun, which stood in the square in front of the Amphitheatre.
Together with the 7m high basement the statue reached the height of the amphitheatre, and it was the largest bronze statue ever made, even larger than its model, the Colossus of Rhodes. It was moved here from the vestibule of the Domus Aurea of Nero on the Roman Forum by Hadrian when he built on its side the Temple of Venus and Rome. There were 24 elephants used to shift it.

 

Hypogeum

Built of concrete and stone. it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world.

 

It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo) is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy

 

The project of the construction belonged to an architect of the imperial family Quintus Aterius. Its basement is located in a natural cave formerly occupied by water and named the lake of Domus Aurea. The lower part of the amphitheatre could be used already after four years. From outside it looked like an enormous ring with four storeys entirely made of travertine. The first three storeys included 80 archways with the Doric columns on the ground floor, Ionic on the 2nd floor and Corinthian on the 3rd floor. The 4th floor was in form of a wall with the rectangular windows and corbels destined to support 240 piles holding a huge velarium served to protect the spectators from the sun or rain. The Colosseum stands on a 13 meters high concrete platform, which is thought to be the secret of the resistance of the amphitheatre to the time, earthquakes (in 422, 1231 and 1349) and other possible damages.

 

The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo)

 

It is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire

 

Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96)

 
Dimensions: 188m x 156m, the circumference in 527m, the height from outside is 50m. Construction was made of 100,000 cubic meters of selected travertine (from the cave of Acque Albule under Tivoli) and 300 tuns of metal served to keep together the blocks with the iron tenons (these were torn out in the Middle Ages and their sockets are visible). Its capacity was 70,000 spectators. Gladiatorial combats were suppressed in 407 and fights with wild beasts in 523.
The performances were free. There were 80 entrances that supplied the quick entrance and exit of the people. All of them were numbered except the four main entrances. Each spectator entered by the arch corresponding to the number of his ticket.
Interior was divided into three parts: the arena, the podium and the cavea. The arena measures 76m by 46m. Its name comes from the sand (arena) which covered the floor in order to prevent combatants from slipping and to absorb the blood. The subterranean passages were used for the arrangement of the spectacles, and provided space for the mechanism by which scenary and other apparatus were hoisted into the arena. There were also cages for animals and rooms of gladiators. The arena was surrounded by 5m high wall to protect the spectators from the animals. At the top of it was a podium, i.e. a broad parapeted terrace in front of the tiers of seats, on which was the imperial couch and places for senators, pontiffs, vestals, foreign ambassadors. The cavea was divided into three tiers: the lower one was reserved for knights, the middle one for the wealthier citizens, and the top one for the populace. The steps on which the spectators were sitting were made of bricks, except those of the emperor and nobility that were marble. Above the topmost tier was a colonnade, to which women were admitted. At the very top was the narrow platform for the team of sailors from Misenus, who were responsible for the velarium (awning).
According to a legend Colosseum was a place of martyrdom of numerous Christians, but it was never proved by historical documents.
During the Middle Ages the Colosseum was adapted for the fortress of the Frangipane, and later of Annibaldi, till the emperor Henry VII didn't present it to the Roman people in 1312. Until 1743, when Benedict XIV consecrated Colosseum to the cult of martyrs and built inside a little church of S.Maria della Pieta', it was endless source of the building material for the other monuments.

 

Castel Sant Angelo

Hadrian's Mausoleum is today known as the Castel Sant'Angelo, having in the renaissance being converted into a papal stronghold. It's circular plan owed much to the Mausoleum of Augustus.

 

It was begun about AD 130, but was not yet completed by the time of Hadrian's death, the emperor being buried in another place until the mausoleum was ready.

 

Castel Sant Angelo and Ponte Sant Angelo on Tiber river

 

This enormous impressive circular construction was built by emperor Hadrian in 130-139 as a mausoleum for himself and his family in substitution of one, already built on the opposite side of the Tiber by emperor Augustus. The height is nearly 50m, the design belongs to Hadrian. The mausoleum consisted of a base 89 meter square, supporting a round tower 64m in diameter of peperino and travertine overlaid with marble.
At the top was an altar bearing a bronze quadriga driven by a charioteer representing Hadrian, as the Sun, ruler of the world. Inside the building is a spiral ramp, which led to a straight passageway ending in the cella, in which was the Imperial tomb. Hadrian and Sabina (his wife) were buried in the mausoleum, as were succeeding emperors until Septimus Severus in 175.
Emperor Trajan had the last of the imperial forums built in the early 2nd century. By that time, huge baths, some of them even including libraries, had become a fixture of the city’s life; the largest were built by Caracalla and Diocletian in the 3rd century.

 

Mamertine, the prison of Saint Peter and Saint Paul

Carcere Mamertino according to a legend was the jail where Saint Peter and Saint Paul was imprisoned. They would have stayed here for nine months and could runaway thanks to the help of other prisoners converted by apostles. Thus it was transformed in the place of cult with the name San Pietro in Carcere. It consists of two levels and was the most horrible part of the ancient State prison located in the caves under the Capitoline Hill. Numerous illustrious enemies of Rome died here. The higher part of the prison was built in the 2nd century b.C. and was named "Mamertino" (medieval name). The lower part is named "Tullianum" built in 387 b.C. which originally was a water reservoir (tullus).

Santa Maria in Cosmedin
Many churches in Rome sit on or in the remains of pagan cultic places. Santa Maria in Cosmedin sits on the high altar of Hercules, part of whose structure has been investigated through excavations under the church. An altar to Hercules shows a Greek connection in the zone since very early times, so it's not all that strange to find that the church is maintained by a Greek order today.
Originally built in the sixth century, the church was known as Santa Maria in Schola Graeca. Byzantine monks escaping the iconoclastic persecutions in Greece arrived here around 782 CE bringing with them artistic skills that gave the church splendid decorations earning it the name "kosmidion", and hence its present name. The church was damaged during the Sack of Rome by the Normans in 1084, but was rebuilt and a marvelous belltower was added, one of the most complex and best preserved examples of the type of structure.

 

Piazza Bocca della Verita
This plain-looking church was built on the site of ancient Rome's food market in the 6th century. It has a Romanesque bell-tower and portico that were added in the 12th century. The Baroque facade was removed in the 19th century to restore the church to its original form. Of particular interest is the mosaic pavement, raised choir, the bishop's throne, and the canopy over the main altar. Set into the wall is the famed Bocca della Verita (Mouth of Truth). This was in the movie, "Roman Holiday". This is thought to have been a drain cover dating before the 4th century B.C. Medieval tradition had it that the formidable jaws of the mouth would snap shut over the hands of those who told lies - which proved to be useful for testing the faithfulness of spouses.

 

Because of the deterioration already threatening the empire, a wall was built around the city during the 3rd century. By the following century, however, it was clear that the imperial court would have to be closer to the borders. Emperor Constantine the Great therefore founded the city of Constantinople as the Christian "New Rome." Although Rome then began to decline, the first major Christian basilicas, among them the original Saint Peter’s, were constructed during this period where Mussolini appeared in the window {Benito Mussolini, (1883-1945), premier-dictator of Italy (1922-1943),
 the founder and leader (Il Duce) of Italian Fascism}.

 

Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere
One of the oldest Churches of Rome, the basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s
The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I

 

Rome city with the background is basilica Santa Maria Maggiore

 

Termini, Rome Terminal (for train and bus)

 
 

 

GO YE INTO ALL THE WORLD, AND PREACH THE GOSPEL TO EVERY CREATURE

 

           

 

 

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