Panoramic Rome city from the Dome of Saint Peter basilica


St. Peter's is located in Vatican state, across the river Tiber, west of Rome's center. Vatican State is completely surrounded by the city of Rome


Vatican City, independent state, under the absolute authority of the pope of the Roman Catholic church. It is an enclave within Rome, Italy, with an area of 44 hectares (110 acres). The smallest independent country in the world, Vatican City was established in 1929 under terms of the Lateran Treaty, concluded by the Italian government and the papacy after many years of controversy. This treaty was superseded in 1984 by a new concordat, which, like its predecessor, recognized the full sovereignty of the Holy See (the jurisdiction of the pope) within the state of Vatican City. For the history of the papal territories before 1929.


Piazza San Pietro and Basilika Saint Peter

Obelisk, Wiki tell us:
Brought to Rome by Caligula in 37 for the spina of the Circus of Nero.
Relocated by Pope Sixtus V in 1586 using a method devised by Domenico Fontana;
the first monumental obelisk raised in the modern period, it is the only obelisk in Rome that has not toppled since Roman times


Saint Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Saint Peter's Basilica was built by the Emperor Constantine over the grave of Saint Peter near the Circus of Nero to the south of the Vatican Hill


Papal Apartment

The official residence of the Supreme Pontiff is located on the third floor of the Apostolic Palace
On Sunday, the Pope may appear at noon on the second window from the right and bless the crowd in St. Peter's Square below


Vatican City is situated on Vatican Hill in northwestern Rome, just west of the Tiber River. It is surrounded by medieval and Renaissance walls and has six gates. Many of the most renowned artists and architects of the Italian Renaissance were commissioned by popes to work on the Vatican's buildings. The most imposing and important edifice is Saint Peter's Basilica. Built for the most part between the 15th and 17th centuries, and designed by artists, including Bramante, Michelangelo, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, it is the world center of Roman Catholic worship. In front of the basilica is the great Piazza San Pietro (Saint Peter's Square).


Porta Santa

The Holy Door (Porta Santa) is the rightmost of five front doors of Saint Peter’s Basilica.

It is open only during Jubilee years, which occur every 25 years or by special orders from the Pope. Otherwise, it is blocked by a brick wall. The last time it opened was in 2000-01.
This latest bronze door was designed by Vico Consorti for 1950. It illustrates God’s redemption, mostly through the life of Jesus.


Saint Peter's Basilica (Italian San Pietro in Vaticano) is a Catholic major basilica in Vatican City, an enclave of Rome. This building is often described as the largest church ever built (it covers an area of 23,000 m² and has a capacity of over 60,000) and one of the holiest sites in Christendom. Construction on Saint Peter's was begun in 1506 and finished in 1626.


The Pietà (1498–1499) by Michelangelo
Located at the first chapel to the right (on the northeast corner) of St. Peter's Basilica
After the 1972 attack by a mentally disturbed man, it is protected by a bullet-proof acrylic glass


Vatican City is governed by the pope, who has absolute executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The executive powers are delegated to a governor, who is responsible directly to the pope. In the exercise of his legislative powers, the pope is advised and assisted by the Sacred College of Cardinals and by the various Sacred Congregations. The judicial powers are exercised by tribunals; appeals from their decisions are heard by the sacred Roman Rota and by the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. The Secretariat of State represents the Holy See in diplomatic relations with foreign powers. Swiss Guards maintain internal security and protection of the pope; the Piazza San Pietro is subject to the authority of the Italian police. Castel Gandolfo, the papal summer palace outside Rome, as well as other buildings located in Rome but outside of Vatican City, are endowed with extraterritoriality.



View of the baldacchino, a monumental canopy that fills the space beneath Michelangelo's dome and covers the shrine of Saint Peter. Made of dark bronze accented with gold vine leaves, it was created by Lorenzo Bernini from 1624 to 1633 under the direction of Barberini pope Urban VIII, who oversaw the Baroque decoration of much of Rome. The spiral columns derive their shapes from the columns in the original Saint Peter's Basilica built by Constantine, and legend had it that they came from Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.


Michelangelo's Dome


Ceiling basilica


The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter has the largest interior of any church in the world.
This is the nave of the basilica. Across the top is Latin text from Luke 22:32. Immediately below are 3 of 16 Statues of Virtues: Obedience, Humility, & Patience.


Saint Peter basilica with Bernini's altarpiece

View down the central nave to the baldacchino and then to the yellow-windowed Cathedra of St. Peter, both by Bernini.


Saint Peter


Chapel of St. Sebastian

Located on the northeast corner of St. Peter's Basilica, just west of the Pietà.
On the bottom is the tomb of Innocent XI.
On the right is a memorial of Pius XI, who oversaw the negotiation of the 1929 Lateran Treaties with Benito Mussolini which recognizes the sovereign independence of the Holy See.


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Big Holy Water Fonts


Frescos and marble sculptures


Helena, mother of Constantine

Niche in the northwest pier with a statue of St. Helena, Constantine's mother. She holds a large cross, representing the relic of the True Cross found by the saint in Jerusalem. A piece of the cross is one of the four major relics kept by Saint Peter's Basilica.
(who in the year 300, collected relics from the Holy Land, including a piece of the cross sent to Rome)


The Tomb of Saint Peter


The Tomb of Pope John Paul II


Vatican City has its own postal system, and also has a rail-road station and radio station, and manages its own telephone and telegraph services. Government expenditures in 1994 were $175 million. A daily newspaper and an official monthly journal are published, as are books and pamphlets in numerous languages. Population (1997 estimate) 850.


Cortile del Belvedere

The Belvedere courtyard, an Italian Renaissance garden, was designed by Donato Bramante in the 16th century
On the left is the 1990 Sphere Within Sphere by Arnaldo Pomodoro


Vatican Museum, museum in Rome, Italy, containing a number of the world’s greatest art treasures. It is located in Vatican City, in the Vatican Palace, which has been the residence of the pope (head of the Roman Catholic church) since the 14th century.

The Vatican Library has a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts and more than 1 million bound volumes. Also within the Vatican's walls are the Government Palace and the Vatican Gardens. Dalam satu tahun, tidak kurang dari 4 juta wisatawan berbagai negara mengunjungi Museum Vatikan.

The other major edifice is the Palace of the Vatican, also known as the Papal Palace. It is a complex of buildings that contains more than 1,000 rooms and houses the papal apartments, the government offices of the Roman Catholic church, several chapels and museums, and a library.


Angels and Demons
Ceiling painting of angels battling demons in the Vatican Museum
by Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) & Federico Zucarr (1541-1609)
Apartment of St Pius V


Sala Delle Muse ceiling, Museo Pio-Clementino


Lukisan dan ukiran berseni sangat tinggi di Museum Vatican


Perpaduan lukisan penuh ukiran di dinding dan langit-langit dalam Museum Vatican


Emmaus Disciples with Jesus

Jesus appeared to two disciples after his resurrection
[This is from a series of tapestries on the life of Christ produced by the workshop of Pieter van Aelst in Brussels (1524-31) based on drawings from the Rafeal workshop]


Resurrection of Christ (Tapistry)


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Emperor Constantine, the first Christian emperor of Rome, ordered to build a basilica on Vatican Hill. The location was symbolic: this was the place where Saint Peter, the chief apostle, was buried in 64 A.D.  A small shrine already existed on the site but it was now replaced by a new building church was completed around 349 AD.

By 1506, St. Peter's Basilica, the main church at the Vatican, was too small and decrepit to impress anyone. Following the examples set by emperors and sultans, Pope Julius II decided to crown the old church with a dome. He hired Italian architect Donato Bramante to do the job. Bramante's vision for the Basilica was simple: a Greek cross with equal-sized arms around a central dome. But Bramante and the Pope died before much could be built. In 1546, a young artist from Florence named Michelangelo gained total control of the construction of St. Peter's, the largest church in Christendom.

Tradition says it was built at the place where St. Peter, one of the apostles of Jesus and considered the first pope, was crucified or buried. The church, it is said, hosts the tomb of St. Peter under the main altar. The other popes are also buried in the basilica.

Winding stairs Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel


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Renowned for the famous Sistine Chapel frescoes by Italian Renaissance artist Michelangelo, and a suite of rooms decorated by his contemporary Raphael, the vast museum also includes the world’s largest collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, the Vatican Library, sizeable Egyptian and Etruscan collections, and the Museum of Modern Religious Art.

(When a Turkish army laid siege to Vienna, in 1683, capital of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, Sobieski led a force to the city's rescue, defeating the besiegers at the Battle of the Kahlenberg)

Near the entrance of the Basilica you will probably encounter some of the famous Swiss guards. Since 1506 when pope Julius II invited Helvetian soldiers to join the small Vatican army, they have been the guards of the Vatican and the pope in particular. All entrants to the army must be Swiss, catholic and they must take the oath of loyalty to the pope. This oath is taken May 26th, to commemorate the sacking of Rome on the same day in 1527 when Swiss guards protected pope Clement VII during his escape to the Castel Sant'Angelo. Of the 189 guards, only 42 survived.

Many of the museum’s works were commissioned by various popes from the leading artists of the day. The collections are huge, having been enlarged over time through gifts, bequests, and purchases.

The most famous portions of the palace are the Sistine Chapel, with its great ceiling frescoes painted by Michelangelo (restored 1980-1990); and Raphael's Rooms, papal apartments with frescoes painted by the Italian artist Raphael. The Vatican's museums are outstanding and include the Gregorian Museum of Egyptian Art; the Gregorian Museum of Etruscan Art; the Pio Clementino Museum, with a superlative collection of antiquities; the Chiaramonti Museum; and the Vatican Pinacoteca, with representative works by Italian masters.


Garden Papal Apartment


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The Vatican Palace was itself enlarged over many centuries. From its beginnings as a fortified residence alongside Saint Peter’s Basilica, it has grown into a vast palace, comprising 5 hectares (12 acres) of buildings and gardens. Much of the palace is open to the public, with a small area reserved as private space for the papal court.


Piazza Basilica Saint Peter

Basilika Saint Peter, pusat dan asal mula Ajaran Yesus ke seluruh dunia. "Di atas batu karang ini Aku akan mendirikan jemaat-Ku", kata Yesus kepada murid-Nya bernama Simon alias Peter (yang artinya 'batu karang'). Dan ternyata penyebaran 'Kabar Baik' Ajaran Yesus ke seluruh dunia yang terbesar memang dari karya Peter dimulai dari Roma.


Orang Roma (bangsa Romawi pada jaman itu) terkenal kejam terhadap orang Yahudi bangsa jajahannya, namun Yesus justru memakai bangsa Romawi menjadi cikal bakal penyebaran Ajaran Cinta Kasih-Nya ke seluruh penjuru dunia dimulai dari karya terbesarnya Rasul Petrus dan Rasul Paulus (2 sosok yang bekerja secara sinergi).



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Virtual San John Lateran Basilica:  www.vatican. va/various/ basiliche/ san_giovanni/ vr_tour/index- en.html












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