DEN VINCENT IN THE CITY OF HELSINKI - Finland

 

   with Jeng Verina

 

 

Sibelius Park

Monumen Sibelius ini terdiri dari serangkaian 600 pipa baja berongga yang dilas (welding) bersamaan dalam pola seperti gelombang sebagai simbolik dari musik Sibelius.

 

Johan Julius Christian Sibelius (December 8, 1865 – September 20, 1957) was a Finnish composer of classical music and one of the most notable composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity.

 

Helsinki (in Finnish), or Helsingfors (in Swedish) is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is in the southern part of Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, by the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is 565,186 (30 April 2007), making it the most populous municipality in Finland by a wide margin.

Helsinki is Finland's administrative center and the center of Finnish cultural life and business activity. There is a large and varied collection of museums, galleries, and performance spaces in the city. Many major company headquarters are in Helsinki.

 

Baru tiba dari St. Petersburg - Russia

 

Central Railway Station Helsinki

 

Trem listrik Helsinki

 

Founded in 1550 as a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today: Tallinn) by King Gustav I of Sweden, the town of Helsinki struggled in its infancy. The fledgling settlement was plagued by poverty, wars, and diseases. For a long time it remained a small coastal town, overshadowed by the more thriving trade centers in the Baltic region. The construction of the Sveaborg (In Finnish Viapori, today also Suomenlinna) naval fortress helped improve its status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that Helsinki began to develop into a major city.

 

White Cathedral of Helsinki

Gereja warna putih ini dirancang bergaya neoklasik yang kini digunakan untuk kebaktian dan upacara-upacara tertentu seperti pernikahan. Atap katedral ini terdapat patung-patung yang terbuat dari seng menggambarkan keduabelas rasul Yesus, merupakan kumpulan patung seng yang seragam terbesar di seluruh dunia.

 

Lutheran Cathedral (Tuomiokirkko in Finnish) dominates Senate Square and the skyline of Helsinki. Both the Lutheran Cathedral and Senate Square are a rather severe interpretation of the neoclassical style, which is intended to reflect the glory of ancient Greece and Rome. Lining the roof are statues of the apostles made of zinc; they are copies of the sculptures on Vor Frue Kirke in Copenhagen.
Compared with the neoclassical flourishes of the exterior, the interior seems rather spartan but is nevertheless attractive. It seats 1300 worshippers and has an altarpiece painted in the 1880s. The statues of angels that flank the altarpiece and the pulpit were designed by Engel. The best part of the interior is the gloomily atmospheric crypt, now used as a café.
 

Senate square in front of Tuomiokirkko or White Cathedral (Lutheran)

The Helsinki Cathedral (in Finnish Helsingin tuomiokirkko or Suurkirkko, in Swedish Helsingfors domkyrka) is an Evangelical Lutheran cathedral and the seat of the Diocese of Helsinki, located in the centre of Helsinki, Finland. The church was built as a tribute to the Grand Duke, Nicholas I, the Tsar of Russia and until the independence of Finland in 1917, it was called St. Nicholas' Church.

 

Statue of Nicholas I, the Tsar of Russia, it was called St. Nicholas

 

In order to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, Czar Alexander I of Russia moved the capital from Turku, which had close ties to Sweden, to Helsinki. The Royal Academy of Turku, back then the only university in the country, was relocated to Helsinki in 1827 and eventually became the modern University of Helsinki. The move consolidated the city's new role, and the following decades saw unprecedented growth and development for the city, creating the prerequisites for the birth of the modern world class capital in the 20th century. This transformation is highly apparent in the downtown core, which was rebuilt in neoclassical style to resemble St. Petersburg. As elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were a key factor behind the growth.

 

Eduskuntatalo (Parliament House) di bukit Arkadianmaki

 

In the 1918 Finnish Civil War, Helsinki fell to the Red Guard on January 28th, the first day of the war. The Red side gained control of the whole of southern Finland after minor hostilities. The Senate was relocated to Vaasa, although some senators and officials remained in hiding in the capital. After the tide of war turned against the Red forces, German troops fighting on the side of the Finnish White Guard recaptured Helsinki in April 1918. Unlike Tampere, Helsinki suffered relatively little damage in the war. After the White victory many former Red soldiers and collaborators were confined in prison camps across the country. The largest camp, having approximately 13,300 prisoners, was located on the former naval fortress island of Suomenlinna in Helsinki. Although the civil war left a considerable scar on the society, the standard of living in the country and the city began to improve in the following decade. Renowned architects such as Eliel Saarinen created utopistic plans for Helsinki, but they were never realized to full extent.
 

National theater

 

Old town square

 

Down town - shopping center

 

In the aerial bombings of the Winter War (1939-40) and the Continuation War (1941-44) Helsinki was attacked by Soviet bombers. The most intense air raids took place in the spring of 1944, when over two thousand Soviet planes dropped some 16,000 bombs in and around the city. However, due to successful air defense the city was spared from the large-scale destruction that many other cities in Europe under bombings of similar scale suffered. Only a small number of bombs hit populated areas.

 

Bundaran air mancur di perempatan jalan

 

Suasana keramaian dekat pantai

 

Pasar kaget di lapangan pinggir pantai

 

Pantai tempat kapal-kapal besar pesiar

 

Despite the tumultuous first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued to develop steadily. The rapid urbanization of the 1970s, which occurred relatively late in the European context, tripled the population in the metropolitan area, making the Helsinki metropolitan area one of the fastest growing urban centers in the European Union in the 1990s. The relatively sparse population density of Helsinki and its peculiar structure have often been attributed to the lateness of the urbanization. Today Helsinki is the second most sparsely populated European capital after Brussels.

Carl Ludvig Engel (1778-1840) designed several neo-classical buildings in Helsinki. He was kept in Helsinki by a unique assignment, as he was elected to plan a new city centre all on his own. The city became shallow and wide at the time when most buildings had only two or three floors. The central point of Engel's city plan is the Senate Square, surrounded by the Government's Palace, the main building of the University, and the enormous Cathedral, which was finished in 1852, twelve years after C. L. Engel's death. Engels' neo-classical plan of the city centre has later given Helsinki the epithet The White City Of The North.

 

Pantai sisi untuk warga santai, berlayar, dan memancing

 

In front of the City Hall and the Presidential Palace

 

Temppeliaukio Kirkko (Rock Church) is a thrilling work of modern architecture in Helsinki. Completed in 1969, it is built entirely underground and has a ceiling made of copper wire.
The underground Rock Church is built inside of a massive block of natural granite in the middle of an ordinary residential square. From ground level, the shape resembles the ancient tomb at Newgrange, Ireland. But the structure is barely visible from outside, with only the copper dome poking out of the rock. Try to see it from above - it looks like a flying saucer has lodged itself in the ground.
Inside the church is circular and enclosed by walls of bare rock. The ceiling is a giant disc made of copper wire. The interior is lit by natural light streaming through 180 vertical window panes that connect the dome and the wall.
A solid copper-colored balcony provides a nice view of the church interior from above. The combination of natural and man-made materials in the Rock Church is striking and explains its popularity.

 

Rock church adalah gereja Lutheran

 

The interior was excavated and built into the rock, but is bathed in natural light entering through the glazed dome. The church is used frequently as a concert venue due to its excellent acoustics. The acoustic quality is ensured by the rough, virtually unworked, rock surfaces. Leaving the interior surfaces of the church exposed was not something that was in the original plans for the church, but the orchestra conductor Paavo Berglund and the acoustician, Mauri Parjo, contributed to the plans. The back wall of the altar is a majestic rock wall, originally created by a withdrawing glacier.

 

Helsinki is, however, perhaps even more famous for its numerous Art Nouveau (Jugend in Finnish) buildings, designed in the early 1900s and strongly influenced by the Kalevala, which is a very popular theme in the national romantic art of that era. Helsinki's Art Nouveau style is also featured in large residential areas such as Katajanokka and Ullanlinna. The master of the Finnish Art Nouveau was Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950), whose architectural masterpiece was the Helsinki central railway station.

Helsinki also features several buildings by the world-renowned Finnish architect Alvar Aalto (1898-1976), attributed as one of the pioneers in functionalism. Many of Aalto's works are either loved or hated. Aalto's buildings, such as the headquarters of the paper company Enso and the concert and congress house Finlandia Hall, have sparked much debate amongst Helsinki's inhabitants.

 

Street near Rock church

 

In addition to Aalto's work, there is a body of other noteworthy functionalist architecture in Helsinki, such as the Olympic Stadium, the Tennis Palace, the Rowing Stadium, the Swimming Stadium, the Velodrome, the Glass Palace, the Exhibition Hall (now Töölö Sports Hall) and Helsinki-Malmi Airport. The sports venues were built to serve the 1940 Helsinki Olympic Games (canceled due to the Second World War), but eventually got to fulfill their purpose in the 1952 Olympic Games. Many of them are listed by DoCoMoMo as significant examples of modern architecture. The Olympic Stadium and Helsinki-Malmi Airport are in addition catalogued by the National Board of Antiquities as cultural-historical environments of national significance.

 

Uspenski Cathedral (Finnish: Uspenskin katedraali, Swedish: Uspenskij-katedralen, Russian: Успенский собор) is an Eastern Orthodox cathedral in Helsinki, Finland, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary). Its name comes from the Russian word uspenie, which denotes the Dormition. Designed by the Russian architect Alexey Gornostaev (1808-1862), the cathedral was built after his death in 1862-1868.

 

The Uspenski Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox cathedral on the Katajanokka peninsula in Helsinki. It is the largest Orthodox church in western Europe. The exterior of Uspenski Cathedral is not elaborately decorated, but is nevertheless striking with its deep-red brick walls and green-and-gold onion domes. There are 13 onion domes in all, representing Christ and the twelve apostles.
As the largest Orthodox church in western Europe, the cathedral also impresses by its sheer size. The central dome is held aloft by four monolithic granite pillars.
Inside, the cathedral houses a rich display of icons and other typical Orthodox decorations, including an impressive array of chandeliers hanging from the vaulted ceiling. One of the icons is believed to work miracles.

 

The interior Uspenski Cathedral

 

During the 1960s and 1970s many aesthetically and historically important houses were swiftly demolished to make room for the rapidly expanding city and instead houses presenting more values of functionalism were built. This has later been widely regarded as a bad move and has led to a strong protectionism of old buildings in Helsinki. The plans made during the era of rapid growth expected Helsinki to have well over one million inhabitants at the turn of the millennium. Much due to the strong protectionism of today there are still many areas left with distinctive old wooden houses, such as Käpylä, Kumpula, Toukola and Puu-Vallila.

 

Malmi - Helsinki International Airport, mau terbang menuju Praque

 

As a historical footnote, Helsinki's neoclassical buildings were often used as a backdrop for scenes set to take place in the Soviet Union in many Cold War era Hollywood movies. Some of the more notable ones are The Kremlin Letter (1970), Reds (1981) and Gorky Park (1983). Because some of the streetscapes were reminiscent of Leningrad's and Moscow's old buildings, they were used in the production - much to some residents' dismay. At the same time the government secretly briefed its white-collar workers to make producing these, often clearly Soviet-negative, films in Helsinki as hard as possible due to diplomatic pressure from Moscow.

 

For a good choice of hotels with discount prices: Hotel in Helsinki

 

 

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