DEN VINCENT IN THE CITY OF ST. PETERSBURG - Russia

 

   with Jeng Verina

 

Peter the Great's Grand Palace

 

The Town of Saint Pétersbourg knew many agitation and changes with the various modes of this country.
Saint Pétersbourg was founded in 1703, by Pierre the Large one in 1712 it becomes the Russian capital.
Located at the mouth of the Delta and Néva, in edge of the Baltic, it lodges more than 5 million inhabitants.
This city was the theatre of principal revolutions of 1905 to 1918 or it was evacuated of these revolutionists who settled in Moscow.
From 1914 to 1924 it was called Pétrograd, then of 1924 to 1991 Leningrad. Then it found its name with the regime change.
Saint Pétersbourg is the youngest city and most aristocratic of the E.C.I.

 

View of Peter the Great's Grand Palace (Petrodvorezca) and the Grand Cascade at Peterhof

Peterhof Palace sebenarnya merupakan serangkaian istana dan taman yang berlokasi di Saint Petersburg yang dibuat atas perintah Peter the Great.

 

Istana dan taman ini kadang disebut sebagai 'Versailles Rusia', kawasan ini terletak pada sebuah tebing yang tingginya sekitar 16 meter dan terletak sekitar 100 meter dari pantai.

 

Bagian dekat pantai disebut Lower Gardens (Nizhny Sad) seluas 1,02 km persegi sebagai pembatas antara tebing dan pantai, membentang dari timur ke barat selebar 200 meter. Sebagian air mancur Peterhof terdapat di sini seperti juga beberapa istana kecil dan bangunan lain. Di sebelah timur terletak Taman Alexandria dengan bangunan bergaya gothic abad 19. Di puncak tebing dekat bagian tengah Lower Gardens berdiri Grand Palace (Bolshoi Dvorets). Di belakangnya (selatan) terletak Upper Gardens (Verhny Sad). Di tebing bawah istana terletak Grand Cascade (Bolshoi Kaskad). Grand Cascade dan Grand Palace adalah pusat dari seluruh kompleks. Di kakinya adalah awal kanal ke laut (Morskoi Kanal) yang membelah Lower Gardens. Grand Cascade meniru suatu air mancur berlapis milik Louis XIV di Chateau de Marly. Di pusatnya ada goa buatan berisi museum mengenai sejarah air mancur tersebut. Goa ini tersambung ke istana di atas dan di belakang oleh sebuah koridor tersembunyi.

 

Samson Fountain, Sea Channel, and Lower Gardens (Nizhny Sad)

Air mancur dari Grand Cascade terletak di bawah goa dan di kedua sisi itu airnya mengalir ke kolam yang berhubungan dengan kanal ke laut. Tahun 1730, air mancur Samson ditempatkan di kolam ini, menggambarkan saat Samson membuka rahang singa sebagai simbol kemenangan Rusia atas Swedia pada Perang Utara. Singa merupakan lambang Swedia, dan kemenangan tersebut dicapai pada hari St. Samson. Dari mulut singa menyembur air ke atas setinggi 20 meter (yang tertinggi di seluruh Peterhof). Karya Mikhail Kozlovsky ini dijarah oleh Jerman pada Perang Dunia II, dan replika patung tersebut dipasang pada tahun 1947.

 

Semua air mancur beroperasi tanpa menggunakan pompa. Air dipasok dari mata air alam yang terkumpul pada waduk di Upper Gardens. Perbedaan ketinggian menciptakan tekanan yang mendorong sebagian besar air mancur Lower Gardens termasuk Grand Cascade. Air mancur Samson disuplai oleh saluran air khusus sepanjang 4 km.

 

Lady Russia dengan kostum tradisional istana

 

Saint Petersburg (Russia) (Russian Sankt Peterburg), second largest city and largest seaport in Russia, located in the northwestern part of the country, at the head of the Gulf of Finland (an arm of the Baltic Sea). The capital of Russia for two centuries (1712-1918), Saint Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, noted for its lavish palaces and grand cathedrals. It is also a major rail junction and an industrial, cultural, and scientific centre. The city is located on both banks of the Neva River and on a number of river islands.

 

Old Singer Sewing Machine Co. HQ building on Nevsky Prospekt, kini beralih menjadi toko buku Dom Knigi

 

Nevsky Prospekt is the main avenue of Saint Petersburg connecting the Winter Palace with the ancient monastery at Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Nevsky is the busiest shopping destination and the prime center of entertainment and nighlife. Shopping malls, department stores, business centers, built in a variety of styles, include the Eliseev emporium, the House of Books, The Passage, and more.

 

Suasana jalanan di St. Petersburg

 

Saint Petersburg has been renamed three times since its founding. Construction of the city began in 1703, ordered by Russian tsar (later emperor) Peter the Great, who named it Saint Petersburg after his patron saint. After World War I broke out in 1914, the city's Germanic name was changed to Petrograd. In 1924, upon the death of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin, its name was changed to Leningrad. Finally, in June 1991, six months before the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) officially dissolved and Russia emerged as an independent country, the city reverted to its original name.
 

SS Peter and Paul Orthodox cathedral


Saint Petersburg’s climate is one of strong contrasts. It is affected by air masses coming off the Atlantic Ocean and by polar continental air, which in winter is very dry and cold. Saint Petersburg has cold winters, with temperatures in January averaging -10° C (14° F); the summers are generally cool, with the temperature in July averaging 17° C (63° F). Although the city’s harbor is frozen for three to four months of each year, icebreakers keep it open for much of the winter season.
Located in the Neva River delta, Saint Petersburg spreads over the mainland and 42 river islands and is divided by more than 60 river branches and 20 canals. A 32-km (20-mi) stretch of the Neva flows within the city’s boundaries. More than 300 bridges connect the various parts of the city that are separated by waterways. While the city proper occupies about 600 sq km (about 230 sq mi), the entire Saint Petersburg metropolitan area covers about 1500 sq km (about 580 sq mi). Saint Petersburg proper is divided into 21 administrative districts, including 5 suburbs. Most of the city’s industry is located on the outskirts of the city. The dockyards are to the west, along the Gulf of Finland.

 

The Admiralty (1806-1823) dengan puncak menaranya berlapis emas menjadikan salah satu ciri dari Saint Petersburg, dan menjadi titik pusat dari 3 jalan utama kota: Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaia Street, dan Voznesensky Prospekt.

 Admiralty adalah salah satu bangunan awal di Saint Petersburg yang semula digunakan sebagai galangan kapal tempat dibuatnya beberapa kapal pertama armada Baltik Rusia dengan Tsar Peter sendiri sebagai ahli pembuatan kapal.

Hingga 1917, the Admiralty menjadi Markas Besar Angkatan Laut Rusia, dan kini dipakai sebagai sekolah tinggi angkatan laut.

 

The commercial areas are in the city center, close to Nevsky Prospekt, the stylish shopping boulevard famous for its magnificent buildings and large department stores. Situated on the south bank of the Neva and circumscribed to the east and south by the Fontanka River is the Admiralty district, the hub of the city, where the main avenues of central Saint Petersburg come together. The district houses the Admiralty fortress and dockyard, which was a shipyard before it became part of a naval college in 1925. Upriver from the fortress is Palace Square, where the ornate Winter Palace (built in 1762)—the winter residence of Russia’s former imperial rulers—is located. The Winter Palace now houses the world-famous Hermitage Museum. Directly across from the Admiralty district is Vasilevsky Island, the largest of all the islands in the Neva and home of the Naval Museum.
 

Peter and Paul Fortress near Neva River

Tahun 1703 Peter the Great membangun benteng di delta Neva (pulau Zayachii Ostrov) untuk melindungi daerah sepanjang sungai Neva dari kemungkinan serangan tentara Swedia. Namun Swedia kalah sebelum benteng selesai, maka dari tahun 1721 dan seterusnya menjadi benteng garnisun kota dan terkenal sebagai penjara tahanan politik. Dan di antara tahanan tersebut adalah anak Peter the Great sendiri yaitu Alexei yang menjadi pemberontak, serta Alexander Lenin. Di tengah benteng berdiri the Peter and Paul cathedral, dimana semua kaisar dan ratu Rusia dari Peter the Great hingga Alexander III dimakamkan di sana. Katedral ini adalah gereja pertama di kota Saint Petersburg yang dibangun dari batu antara 1712-1733.

 

The Peter and Paul Cathedral

Located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress along the Neva River in Saint Petersburg. It is the oldest building in Saint Petersburg and the second tallest after the television tower.
The needle-like spire rising from the bell tower of Peter and Paul reaches a height of 404 feet and provides a spectacular view of the city. The angel holding a cross at the top of the spire is one of the most important symbols of Saint Petersburg.
Inside the cathedral are the extravagant tombs of almost all the Russian rulers since Peter the Great. People still leave fresh flowers on Peter's grave. The last to be buried here was Nicholas II and his family, who were re-interred here on July 17, 1998.
But the highlight of the interior is the fantastic iconostasis, constructed by more than 40 Moscow architects under Ivan Zarudny from 1722-1727.


Farther up the river, on Zayachy Island, is the Peter and Paul Fortress. It was built in 1703, before construction of the city itself began. The fortress held political prisoners until the beginning of the 20th century. The Peter and Paul Cathedral, located inside the fortress, is the burial place of the tsars and the tallest historical building (122 m/400 ft) in the city. The headquarters of Saint Petersburg’s municipal government are located in the Mariinsky Palace, which was built in 1844 on Saint Isaac's Square in the Admiralty district for Emperor Nicholas I’s daughter Maria. Also on Saint Isaac’s Square is the Cathedral of Saint Isaac, which was built between 1768 and 1858. Far to the east of the Admiralty district is the Smolny Institute, founded by Catherine the Great in the 1700s to serve as a boarding school for upper-class girls. The current building—built to replace the original structure in the early 1800s—housed the first Soviet government from the time it took power in October (or November, in the Western, or New Style, calendar) 1917 until March 1918. The Smolny now houses the offices of the city’s mayor.

 

 

Interior of the Peter and Paul Cathedral

 

Outside the city proper, Saint Petersburg’s metropolitan area is home to some of Russia's most renowned historical sites. Among them is the royal village of Tsarskoye Selo (now Pushkin), where the Catherine Palace, a magnificent structure built in the mid-18th century, is located. Pushkin is situated 27 km (17 mi) south of Saint Petersburg. Pavlovsk, located less than 2 km (1 mi) south of Pushkin, is home to the Great Palace of Emperor Paul I (built from 1782 to 1786). On the Gulf of Finland, 40 km (25 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, is the former imperial residence of Petrodvorets, named for the city’s founder. Large-scale housing developments were built on the outskirts of the city in the period following World War II (1939-1945); they house the bulk of Saint Petersburg’s residents. Although most units are equipped with indoor plumbing, electricity, and telephones, the buildings are often run-down and crowded.
 

Under these monuments the Tsars are buried in the ground

 

View of the inside cathedral


The population of Saint Petersburg proper (1995) was 5,149,689. Following significant population growth in the 1960s—a period of marked industrial expansion—the city's annual growth rate slowed considerably in the 1970s and 1980s. Stagnant population growth has been a trend in Russia’s urban areas and is attributable to such factors as a drop in the country’s birth rate and a rise in the mortality rate due to declining health standards. A slight decline in the city's population in recent years is linked to a drop in economic productivity and increased unemployment rate among city residents.

 

Sports stadium

 

Ever since its founding, Saint Petersburg has been a multinational city. Although Russians constitute the dominant ethnic group (about 92 percent of the population), the city also has significant numbers of Ukrainians (about 3 percent of the population), followed by Jews (considered a separate ethnic group in Russia), Belarusians, and Tatars. The main religion is Russian Orthodox Christianity, but Roman Catholics, Jews, and Muslims are also well represented in the city. As in other large Russian cities, the primary spoken language is Russian.
Saint Petersburg is the home of Saint Petersburg University (established in 1819), about 200 scientific institutes, and more than 40 colleges. Among the city's numerous libraries are the Russian National Library (formerly the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library; founded in 1795) and the Library of the Academy of Sciences (built from 1783 to 1789), one of the oldest scientific establishments in Saint Petersburg.

As a leading cultural center, Saint Petersburg has inspired great works of literature by Russian authors such as Aleksandr Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Ivan Turgenev, and Nikolay Gogol. The city is also a thriving center for dance, music, and theater. Ever since the first school of Russian ballet opened in the city in 1738, it has been the center of Russian classical dance. The Mariinsky Opera and Ballet Theater (known as the Kirov from 1935 to 1991) has been the home of some of Russia's most famous dancers, including Rudolph Nureyev and Mikhail Baryshnikov. Among the composers who spent their lives in Saint Petersburg are Peter Tchaikovsky and Dmitry Shostakovich. Shostakovich’s famous Seventh Symphony was premiered in 1942 at the Shostakovich Philharmonia Concert Hall, where today world-famous musicians appear regularly. The Pushkin Dramatic Theater is known for its classical and modern drama productions, while the Theater of Musical Comedy is highly regarded for its original repertoire. Saint Petersburg celebrates music and arts during a week-long festival held in mid-summer.

 

State Hermitage museum (the greatest art museum in the world, with 3 million collection put in 6 building, the main building is the Winter Palace) and Hermitage theatre on the right.

 

Saint Petersburg is also home to some of the finest museums in the world. The most famous is the State Hermitage Museum, founded in 1764 by Russian empress Catherine the Great as a museum for the royal court. The Hermitage has a vast collection of Russian, Asian, and Western European art. Other museums in the city are the Russian Museum, which has one of the best collections of Russian art in the country, and the Ethnographic Museum of Russia, with exhibits on the peoples of Russia and the former Soviet Union (source: Encarta).

 

Di dalam museum yang terkesan luar biasa hebat

 

The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes dominant position on the right bank of the Neva river, across the Winter Palace in the center of the city. A boardwalk was built along a portion of the fortress wall, giving visitors a clear view of the city across the river to the south. On the other bank of the Neva, the spit (Strelka) of the Vasilievsky Island is graced by the former Bourse building (1805–1810), an important landmark in the style of the Greek Revival, is now home of the Museum of Navy. The spit of the Vasilievsky Island is designed as a classic lawn-park on the waterfront, and is highlighted by two tall and colorful Rostral Columns, decorated with statues and prows of battleships. This is a traditional place for music festivals and public events, such as the White Nights festival.
 

Della Robbia


The most famous of St. Petersburg's museums is the Hermitage, one of the world's largest and richest collections of Western European art. Its vast holdings were originally exhibited in the Greek Revival building (1838–1852) by Leo von Klenze, now called the New Hermitage. But the first Russian museum was established by Peter the Great in the Kunstkammer, erected in 1718–1734 on the opposite bank of the Neva River and formerly a home to the Russian Academy of Sciences. Other popular tourist destinations include the State Russian Museum and the Summer Garden, the Ethnography Museum (1900–1911), Stieglitz Museum of Applied Arts (1885–1895), the Suvorov Museum of Military History (1901–1904), and the Political History Museum (1904–06).

 

Alexander Column in front of the former General Staff buildings of the Russian Army (1819-1829)

 

The imperial government institutions were housed in stately buildings, such as the General Staff building on the Palace Square (1820–1827), with a huge triumphal arch in the centre, the Senate and Synod buildings on the Senate Square (1827–1843), the Imperial Cabinet (1803–1805) and the City Duma (1784-87) on the Nevsky Prospekt, the Assignation Bank (1783–1790), the Customs Office (1829–1832), and the masterpiece of Russian architecture: the Admiralty (1806–1823), one of the city's most conspicuous landmarks. Most of Imperial palaces and state buildings were designed by reputable architects invited by the Russian Tsar's from European capitals, such as Domenico Trezzini, Giacomo Quarenghi, Thomas de Thomon, Bartholomeo Rastrelli, Carlo Rossi and other foreign architects who settled in Saint Petersburg and worked on numerous large-scale projects. Next came the generation of Russian-born architects and engineers, such as Zakharov, Stasov, Voronikhin, Starov, and other Russians who studied abroad and returned to work in Saint Petersburg.
 

The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Храм Спаса на Крови)

It is one of the main Russian Orthodox churches of Saint Petersburg, Russia. It is also variously called the Church on Spilt Blood and the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ (Собор Воскресения Христова), its official name. The name refers to the blood of the assassinated Alexander II of Russia, who was mortally wounded on that site on March 13, 1881 (Julian date: March 1).

 

Mosaics adorn pillars, ceiling and dome
The church is prominently situated along the Griboedov Canal. The section of street where the assassination took place was enclosed within the walls of the church, and part of the canal filled to allow the street to pass around the building.
Architecturally, the church is out of place in Saint Petersburg. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood is more in line with medieval Russian architecture. It intentionally resembles the famous St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.

 

Spectacular mosaics cover the interior
The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day - including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel - but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known.

 

Altar

An elaborate shrine was constructed on the exact place of Alexander's death, garnished with topaz, lazurite and other semi-precious stones.
The church contains over 7,500 square meters of mosaics - according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world.

 

The intricately detailed mosaics depict biblical scenes and figures, with fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
 

The former imperial capital is rich in science and educational institutions. Saint Petersburg State University is based on Vasilievsky Island and in Peterhof. The university's spacious baroque edifice of Twelve Collegia (1722–1744) was designed by Domenico Trezzini. The Academy of Arts (1764–1788), an exceedingly handsome structure, overlooks a quayside adorned with genuine Egyptian griffins and sphinxes. The Smolny Institute (1806–1808), originally the first school for Russian women, was Lenin's headquarters during the Russian Revolution of 1917, is now the office of the Governor. The Catherine's Institute (1804–1807), also designed by Quarenghi, is now the Russian National Library. Another Neoclassical building by Quarenghi, a roomy Horse Guards Riding School (1804–1807), is now the Central Exhibition Hall.

 

Metro station

 

Some historic shops and storehouses are landmarks in their own right, such as the monumental New Holland Arch (1779–1787) and adjacent walls of the New Holland isle. The Merchant Court on the Nevsky Prospekt (1761–1785), also designed by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe, houses the largest extant 18th century shopping mall and supermarket in the world, now rebuilt and updated with several coffee bars and a metro station. Nearby are the Circular Market, erected in 1785–1790, and the Passage, one of the great covered arcades of the mid-19th century.

 

Two rostral columns of red granite are set up on either side of the Bourse. They were intended to serve as beacons and may be lit on ceremonial occasions even today. The columns are decorated with marble allegorical figures representing four major rivers of Russia — the Volga, Dnieper, Neva, and Volkhov.

 

During the First World War the Aurora operated in the Baltic Sea. In 1915 her armament was changed to fourteen 152 mm (6in) guns. At the end of 1916, the ship was moved to Saint Petersburg (then Petrograd) for a major repair. The city was brimming with revolutionary ferment and part of her crew joined the 1917 February Revolution. A revolutionary committee was created on the ship (Aleksandr Belyshev was elected its captain). Most of the crew joined the Bolsheviks, who were preparing for a Communist revolution.
 

The Aurora


On 25 October 1917, the refusal of an order for the Aurora to take to sea sparked the October Revolution. At 9.45 p.m. on that date, a blank shot from her forecastle gun signaled the start of the assault on the Winter Palace, which was to be the last episode of the October Revolution. Aurora's crew actually took part in the attack.

 

Hermitage Theatre


Saint Petersburg is a home to more than 50 theatres. The oldest is the Hermitage Theatre, a private palatial theatre of Catherine the Great, still preserving the complex stage machinery of the 18th century. The Alexandrine Theatre, built in 1828–1832 by Carlo Rossi, was named after the wife of Nicholas I. Most famous outside Russia is the Mariinsky Theatre (former Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet), which has been styled the capital of the world ballet. The Ciniselli Circus is one of the oldest circus buildings in the world. The Opera House at Saint Petersburg Conservatory, the first in Russia, was founded in 1861 by Anton Rubinstein and bears the name of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov; its alumni include Tchaikovsky, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich who also taught here.

 

Peter the Great and the Bronze Horseman

 

Probably the most familiar symbol of Saint Petersburg is the equestrian statue of Peter the Great, known as the Bronze Horseman and installed in 1782 on the Senate Square. Considered the greatest masterpiece of the French-born Etienne Maurice Falconet, Aleksandr Pushkin's poem about the statue figures prominently in the Russian literature under the name of The Bronze Horseman.

 

Saint Issac's Cathedral, dihiasi dengan ikon-ikon indah dan rumit menggunakan potongan batu granit merah yang masing-masing beratnya sekitar 80 ton. Katedral ini dapat menampung 14000 jemaat, kini berfungsi sebagai museum, sedangkan ibadah diadakan hanya pada hari raya gerejawi.

 

It is the largest cathedral in St. Petersburg and was the largest church in Russia when it was built (101.5 meters high), and is still the third largest domed cathedral in the world. For visitors willing to climb 300 steps, it provides a spectacular view of Saint Petersburg.

 

 
The severe neoclassical exterior of St. Isaac's expresses the traditional Russian-Byzantine formula of a Greek-cross plan with a large central dome and four subsidiary domes. It is similar to Andrea Palladio's Villa La Rotonda, with a full dome on a high drum substituted for the Villa's low central saucer dome.

 


The exterior, which barely hints at the riotously rich interior, is faced with gray and pink stone, and features a total of 112 red granite columns with Corinthian capitals, each hewn and erected as a single block: 48 at ground level, 24 on the rotunda of the uppermost dome, 8 on each of four side domes, and 2 framing each of four windows.
The rotunda is encircled by a walkway accessible to tourists. 24 statues gaze down from the roof, and another 24 from the top of the rotunda.

 

The cathedral's doors are covered in reliefs, patterned after the celebrated doors of the Battistero di San Giovanni in Florence, designed by Lorenzo Ghiberti.
Inside suspended underneath the peak of the dome is a sculpted dove representing the Holy Spirit. Internal features such as columns, pilasters, floor, and statue of Montferrand are composed of multicolored granites and marbles gathered from all parts of Russia.

 

 

Altar
The iconostasis is framed by eight columns of semiprecious stone: six of malachite and two smaller ones of lazurite. The four pediments are also richly sculpted.

 


The interior was originally decorated with scores of paintings by the great Russian masters of the day. When these paintings began to deteriorate due to the cold, damp conditions inside the cathedral, Montferrand ordered them to be painstakingly reproduced as mosaics, a technique introduced in Russia by Mikhail Lomonosov. This work was never completed.

 

The Palace Square is dominated by the unique Alexander Column(1830–1834), the tallest of its kind in the world and so nicely set that no attachment to the base is needed. A striking monument to Generalissimo Suvorov, represented as a youthful god of war, was erected in 1801 on the Field of Mars, formerly used for military parades and popular festivities. Saint Isaac's Square is graced by the Monument to Nicholas I (1856–1859), which was spared by Bolshevik authorities from destruction as the first equestrian statue in the world with merely two support points (the rear feet of the horse).
 

The new terminal of the Saint Petersburg airport on the left, the previous one is on the right


The public monuments of Saint Petersburg also include Mikeshin's circular statue of Catherine II on the Nevsky Avenue, fine horse statues on the Anichkov Bridge, a Rodin-like equestrian statue of Alexander III by Paolo Troubetzkoy, and the Tercentenary monument presented by France in 2003 and installed on the Sennaya Square.

 

The Saint Petersburg railway station, we went to Helsinki by this train

 

Some of the most important events in the city's history are represented by particular monuments. The Russian victory over Napoleon, for example, was commemorated by the Narva Triumphal Gate (1827–1834), and the victory in the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829 — by the Moscow Triumphal Gates (1834–1838). Following this tradition, the Piskarevskoye Cemetery was opened in 1960 as a monument to the victims of the 900-Day Siege.

 

 

 

 

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